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transition to a low-carbon economy: the mitigation agenda.

by:Marslite     2019-10-02
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Energy growth is essential for economic development and poverty alleviation.
Accelerating the provision of affordable modern energy for the poorest is essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
At present, there is a large financing gap in the energy sector. -
About $65 billion a year, or about the actual demand for electricity generation in developing countries.
In SSA and South Asia, access is the most serious problem.
For example, the current rate of new connections in SSA (
Less than 1%)
No new family structure (1. 9 percent).
Many countries, particularly South Africa and South Asia, are rapidly expanding projects aimed at increasing energy supply and multilateral development banks (
AfDB, for example)
In support of these efforts, they adjusted their priorities.
However, developing countries-
According to the \"common but differentiated responsibility\" principle of the Climate Convention ---
Action is being taken to change its economic growth strategy, including to minimize technical and management options for greenhouse gas production while maintaining social and economic development goals.
Recent examples include China\'s National Climate Change Program, Mexico\'s National Climate Change Strategy and India\'s integrated energy policy.
This reflects the fact that sustainable development, economic growth and poverty reduction remain the most important issues for these other developing countries.
G-admitted that too.
8 The most recent communiqué of Heiligendamm.
These actions are an important start, but there is obviously a lot of work to be done. [
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By reducing the primary energy resources needed to provide a certain number of modern energy services, energy efficiency helps mitigate the impact of fossil fuels on the global and local environment. Energy-
Efficiency measures are usually the lowest.
Cost options for a country to mitigate the effects of climate change.
Energy efficiency is also attractive because it increases economic competition and relieves the vulnerability of disruption in the energy market.
EBRD has been recognized by other multilateral development banks as a leader in improving energy efficiency and financing, a key strategic direction for the bank\'s review of new capital resources (five-
Year Strategy-2010)
Energy operation policy.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development\'s ei recommends doubling energy efficiency and investment in clean energy in its operating areas.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development will seek to invest up to £ 1. 5billion [euro]
In more than 2006 of the environment
2008, driving the total investment of about 5 [euro]billion.
With the development of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development has taken some measures to fully mainstream its energy
Efficiency activities across the department and the geographic team.
This includes the use of the company\'s planning function to fully integrate its energy
Efficiency Priorities for It department operations.
In this regard, investment pipelines are systematically screened to identify energy sources
Efficiency opportunities early in the project cycle.
Based on the sectoral assessment of greenhouse gas emissions in the region, the potential for emission reduction, the extent and complexity of barriers to increased investment in emission reduction, specific components of the EBRD environmental impact assessment have been identified, and the level of banking experience and operational capabilities.
Based on this assessment, sei aims to accelerate the pace of direct investment in energy
Efficiency projects in the industrial sector.
Japan\'s National Energy Administration supports the expansion of the World Bank\'s energy audit program
Provide operational and implementation support to national energy users through the form of energy management training (a)
Ensuring sustainable energy
Achieve efficiency gains, and (b)
Expanding the development and implementation of sustainable energy financing facilities to small and medium-sized enterprises
In the countries in which it operates, businesses and the residential sector are large in size.
Market research supports market research to identify specific energy sources
Efficiency requirements for each target country, skills development for local banks to assess energy efficiency projects, and energy achievement
Efficiency savings and small renewable energy
Energy investment.
Energy efficiency has been an important consideration for theEIB loans since the 1970 oil crisis, although it has become more prominent, taking into account the agreement with EU policy objectives to reduce energy consumption by 20% by 2020.
Energy efficiency is included in EIB\'s decision
Since the EIB typically uses the most modern technology, most of its projects result in improved energy efficiency.
However, when the European Investment Bank only tries to prove the \"energy saving\" of the loan, there is obvious reason (
Energy consumption decreased by at least 20% compared to before the project was implemented.
For projects that EE contributes so much, EIB can now fund 75% of the total cost.
Specialized EE credit lines and financing partnerships are also being developed, including group investments in construction and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
For example, when funding is in place, technical assistance in energy audits will be involved.
Loans to health protection centres and regional heating will be expanded, especially in the new Member States.
ADB has established a comprehensive CE & EP to help itsDMCs achieve significant, measurable changes in energy
Ensure a sustainable, low
Carbon Energy in the future
An important component of CE & EP is the energy efficiency initiative launched in July 2005 with the goal of expanding ADB\'s clean energy business to $1 billion per year.
EEI is implemented in three phases.
The first phase, the start-up phase, was completed in June 2006, and the draft EEI report was approved by ADBmanagement, which firmly established the basis for ADB\'s expanded and sustained operations and energy efficiency --
General principles for energy efficiency investments and action plans are defined and priorities and frameworks are provided for next steps.
ADB has identified China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines and Vietnam as priority DMCs with the potential to have the greatest impact on reducing [carbon emissions]O. sub. 2]
Emissions from Asia and the Pacific.
In the ongoing Phase II, ADB has been holding consultative meetings in these countries to learn directly from clean energy --
Market stakeholders make the barriers, catalytic conditions and instant investment opportunities prevalent in each DMC market a prerequisite for local cleaning
Pipeline development for energy projects.
In some of these DMCs, ADB is assisting in the development of a broader strategic framework for external assistance or new legislation aimed at accelerating the implementation of new EE and other clean energy projects.
ADB has provided $2.
9 million delivery of the following goods from October 2006 to December 2008 :(a)
National Action Plan and project pipeline for DMCs clean energy investment ,(b)
Design and establishment of cooperation mechanism for clean energy financing (CEFPF),and (c)
ADB develops necessary management structures and capacity-building to scale up
As well as monitoring and evaluating activities under EEI.
To date, work under the EEA has led to an increase in ADB\'s investment in clean energy.
For example, during the period from 2003 to 2006, ADB\'s total energy investment
Energy efficiency projects totaled nearly $0. 685 billion.
2007-efficiency project
2009 is almost $1. 5billion.
The Asian Development Bank established the CEFPF in April 2007.
It was designed as finance (a)
Small EE investments that require fast and efficient trading; (b)technology-
Transfer the cost of clean technologies to a small number of large-scale interventions with demonstration effects that will facilitate the deployment of clean energy technologies; and (c)
Grants are provided for activities such as the development of knowledge bases and incentive mechanisms, advocacy, institutional capacity-building, project preparation and the establishment of monitoring and evaluation mechanisms.
The strategy and action plan will be implemented in Phase II (2008-2010).
WBG has been actively promoting energy efficiency since the early 1990 s.
Following the publication of the World Bank\'s policy document, energy efficiency and conservation in the developing world, the issue of energy efficiency was mainstream in national policy dialogue and the World Bank\'s financial instruments were deployed to support energy --
Efficiency intervention across the energy supply chain.
For the past 16 years, WBG has been working to improve energy efficiency, funding a total of $2 in investment.
More than 2 billion projects in more than 40 countries.
These projects span all regions and are mainly concentrated in Europe and Central Asia, East Asia and the Pacific, as well as in a number of sectors, particularly the provision of regional heating and electricity services.
Wbg06 committed to invest $0. 49 billion in energy
Solve the efficiency project of all-round terminaluse and supply-
It also aims to help remove institutional, regulatory, financial and technical barriers.
WBG\'s commitment to energy efficiency has been further strengthened as it plays a key role in leading global collaborative efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the clean energy investment framework.
In this regard, energy efficiency for sustainable development (EEfSD)
The World Bank is developing an action plan to expand the World Bank\'s energy scale
Efficient operation of client country.
These interventions are divided into four tracks to enable countries to use energy --
Efficiency Opportunities for priority departments: Track 1--
Integrating energy efficiency into the economic and departmental track of work 2--
Major energy efficiency in investment operations-
Improve internal operational, learning and analytics capabilities and follow up 4--
Monitoring, evaluation and outreach.
The EEfSD strategy includes interventions at three levels :(a)
Policy and Regulation ,(b)
Division and (c)end-
Use equipment and appliances.
In addition to continuing work on supply, the focus is on scaling up the demand side
Efficiency is improved.
The project \"Africa lighting\", which WBG aims to increase SSA\'s modern lighting services, has recently received the necessary funds to fully mobilize.
It aims to promote 0. 25 billion of the energy needs of the private sector.
Low customers by 2030
Support cost, reliable and affordable lighting services to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
Starting in 08, the project aims to promote the entry of the efficient lighting project as a WBG loan product.
International Finance Corporation has successfully created a clean
For more than 10 years, energy financing has been carried out through the Global Environment Fund and other financial intermediaries supported by donors.
In Eastern Europe, Russia, China and (soon)
The Philippines relies on a combination of technical assistance and partial risk guarantees to involve local banks in cleaning-energy lending.
IFC\'s financial markets group is internalizing this approach, which has set a target for these projects to commit $0. 5 billion by 2009.
IFC Performance standards require identification, quantification and reporting of projects leading to 100,000 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissionsO. sub. 2]per year (
Electricity consumption directly or indirectly).
The Islamic Development Bank is working to mainstream energy efficiency into the Islamic Development Bank project.
Energy assessment for each new project
Potential for efficiency.
Where feasible, the Islamic Development Bank is providing an integrated energy efficiency plan that includes audits and support for efficiency measures, maintenance and training investments.
Projects in the water sector, various industrial sectors and thermal power plants have completed such audits.
Banks also offer countries-
Assessment of level assistance in energy
Efficiency opportunities in key sectors.
Islamic Development Bank funds to improve energy efficiency of water
Pumping Systems in El Salvador, as well as efficiency improvements in lighting in residential, service and commercial sectors in Central America and Chile.
Cooperation with commercial banks and energy
Energy conservation cooperation service for public buildings in major Latin American cities.
The Islamic Development Bank also provides assistance to countries in reviewing regulatory, institutional and financial frameworks for energy efficiency in order to create an appropriate environment for investment and to fund pilot projects for the application of emerging energy
Efficiency technology.
In addition, it is working with the World Bank and the International Energy Agency to develop energy
Efficiency indicators in Brazil and Mexico in order to provide important baseline information on energy consumption and efficiency.
Finally, the Islamic Development Bank has funded projects over the past year to develop innovative business models for energy
Efficient service.
As part of the proposed clean energy access and climate adaptation fund for Africa (CEACAFA)
In the project, AfDB will gradually examine energy efficiency issues related to power generation and distribution, especially as part of its ongoing support for regional power pools.
Clean will be supported by AfDB-
Furnace technology, capacity-
Energy Building-
Efficiency audit and equipment
Standards and regulations and assist in the preparation of energy-
Efficiency Project (e. g. , energy-
Efficient Lighting).
In particular, cecafa will focus on supply-related policy and regulatory issues
Energy efficiency and demand management.
The African Development Bank will work with the World Bank and bilateral agencies to provide financial and technical assistance to African governments and local authorities to enhance the efficiency aspects of energy policies, regulatory frameworks and implementation capacities.
In terms of energy supply, support (
Financing, consulting services, technical assistance, capacity-building)
Will be provided to energy and power companies to cover energy costs
Efficiency audits and development and implementation of strategies to improve the technical efficiency of power generation, transport, storage and local distribution phases of power and fuel supply.
Special attention will be given to strengthening the effective operation of regional power pools, energy markets and fuel supply systems.
In terms of demand, AfDB will drive utilities to collect and collect appropriate user fees (
Including reasonable subsidies for the poor)
As a key tool to promote energy efficiency and conservation.
Efforts will be supported by the government to develop and monitor energy efficiency, safety and health standards for household and micro-appliances
For small businesses (including agro-
Manufacturing industry and light industry).
Under the AfDB strategy of higher education, science and technology (HEST)
Support will be provided to strengthen vocational training programs to create skilled labor force for proper maintenance of mechanical equipment.
The World Bank will support government projects for NGOsNGOs)
Introduce more efficient and cleaner (smokeless)
Wood, charcoal and coal stoves
In rural areas, families continue to rely on these energy sources to prepare food.
In addition, as a demand
The bank will fund government projects to phase out incandescent lamps and replace them with energy-efficient bulbs
Energy compact fluorescent lamps, and will consider financing in a commercial manner to private enterprises keen to build this capacity for bulb production and distribution in African countries.
Renewable energy now has a proven range of renewable energy technologies, some of which are commercially viable and have great potential to improve energy supply in developing countries.
Make these small
Therefore, expanding technology online throughout the market is a key priority for mdb.
These interventions include steps to invest in support and address various policy issues aimed at eliminating bias towards renewable energy ---e. g.
Subsidies for fossil fuels and unfair access to power grids.
They also increasingly include more proactive support for renewable energy, such as promoting regulatory and policy regimes that actively encourage renewable energy, capacity-building, identifying local renewable resources, technology adaptation and knowledge transfer
Since 1990, the World Bank has played an active role in promoting renewable energy, providing $7.
Financing 2 billion (US$2.
7 billion excluding hydropower> 10 mw).
In 2004, the bank pledged to increase lending by 20% a year by 2009.
Bank renewable energy
Energy projects are spread all over the world and have important priorities in Asia, Africa and Latin America.
Work of the world energy organization on renewable energy is underway
Objective: On the one hand, energy supply from the short to medium term, on the other hand, assistance for development policies and capacity-building of scale --
Use of renewable energy.
In 07, the total cost of new renewable energy projects was $0. 421 billion.
Investment, policy support and training, capacity-building and knowledge dissemination are key activities to increase access to energy.
Work in the economic sector (ESW)
Consulting services for analysis (AAAs)
With the support of the Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP)
Strengthening the policy and institutional framework for long-term development
Energy development plans, including laws and regulations that encourage greater use of renewable energy.
Hydropower investment will include the renewal of existing plants, small operationsof-
River power plants with reservoirs and multi-purpose hydropower stations.
These types of projects demonstrate the significant impact that partnerships between wbg, government and the private sector can have in this effort.
Box 1 below shows three private sectors
WPG project based on traditional energy and new renewable energy.
Reflecting Europe\'s early commitment to renewable energy and Europe\'s leadership in most renewable energy markets, the EIB has been actively involved in renewable energy financing for more than a decade within and outside the EU.
Despite this, the EIB has increased its participation in renewable energy financing
Energy projects following recent EU policy initiatives.
Reinvestment within the EU is often driven by a strong supportive national policy framework and sometimes requires financial subsidies (e. g.
Regulations such as grants and/or guaranteed leavetakeprices). In 2005-
2006 EIB\'s loan for renewable energy is about [euro]
This accounts for the majority within the EU each year.
Outside the EU, the largest area of renewable energy loans is the group of non-Canadian countries.
Within the framework of its 2007/10 corporate operating policy, the EIB has set challenging targets for its support of renewable energy
Energy, and commitment to provide no less than 600 of the loans [annually]euro]-800 million [euro]
Renewable energy projects.
This is a major progress in the bank\'s renewable energy investment activities;
About 60% more than in recent years.
However, in the first six months of 2007, EIB signed more than 0. 9 billion [renewable energy loans]euro]
Of which [0. 7 billion]euro]
In the EU, about 4 billion [investment] was mobilizedeuro](
That is, the multiplication tube of 4x).
Another goal is that 50% of electricity generation loans will be used to finance renewable energy technologies.
This is supported by more coal financing options --
Power plants and encourage countriesof-the-
Art technologies such as carbon capture and storage.
EIB is developing new financing tools to meet the market demand for financing small onshore wind farms and more large wind farm projects
Scale, offshore farm.
The EIB has also launched a program to invest in private management investment funds as a tool to provide equity financing to the renewable energy sector (
Solar power generation, biodiesel production, etc ). .
The first transaction under the initiative (a 25 million [euro]
Invest in Spanish funds as cornerstone investors)
Attached, others will follow up for the rest of 2007.
The European Investment Bank is working with the private sector to actively develop more transactions with a broader geographical focus.
One of the key objectives of the EBRD\'s environmental initiative is to promote, support and invest in the development of renewable energy capabilities in the operational regions.
Environmental initiatives support legal assistance to establish a basic regulatory framework for renewable energy, provide technical assistance for the definition of the scope of renewable energy projects and environmental impact assessments, and update technical assessments of renewable energy potential, training for local banks and project developers.
As part of a new effort under SECCI, the Islamic Development Bank is working with Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC)
Regional strategy for low development
Carbon Energy, including assessment of renewable energy potential and appropriate policy frameworks and incentives, as well as financing investment in renewable energy sources such as hydropower, geothermal, wind, rural electricity and biofuels.
A landmark study on the state of biofuels development in Latin America, the green energy blueprint for the Americas, aims to help establish an informed approach to the development of biofuels, taking into account the opportunities to meet the needs of energy and rural development, as well as related social and environmental issues.
The Islamic Development Bank is working with several countries such as Chile, Peru, Brazil, Colombia, Honduras, Guatemala, Panama, El Salvador, Paraguay and Guyana to develop regulatory frameworks to create better extensions-
Improve conditions and attract private
Sector investment in these areas.
The Islamic Development Bank has also worked with the World Bank to develop a renewable energy tool as an operational guide and information manual dedicated to Latin America and the Caribbean.
The purpose of the toolkit is to promote the development of renewable energy projects and investments and to expand the portfolio of renewable energy.
The African Development Bank has been implementing the Dutch government\'s financial \"Africa programme\" since 2004\"
The funded initiative aims to increase the bank\'s financing of renewable energy and energy efficiency projects by building the necessary capacity within the Bank and regional member states (RMCs)
Update the bank\'s existing energy sector policies and assist operations in identifying and developing RE and EE projects and project components.
The FINESSE project has produced some boards-
Approved projects characterized by renewable energy components, such as rural water supply projects using solar water pumps and solar photovoltaic (PV)
For schools and boarding facilities in Uganda, as well as renewable energy
Energy composition (
Solar photovoltaic, hydro and grid extension)
In an agricultural infrastructure improvement project in Uganda.
As part of the FINESSE Project, an Africa-
The current status of renewable energy and energy efficiency has been extensively assessed and the activities required to accelerate investment in these areas have been assessed.
The study also raised priorities for renewable energy technologies in different regions.
The current FINESSE plan is ending the current implementation phase. As a follow-
The African Development Bank is currently developing alternative plans for access to clean energy and climate adaptation (
Funding is obtained through the planned CEACAFA.
The project is currently in the early stages of development but is designed to support the publicandprivate-
Sector projects in clean use of fossil fuels, renewable energy, energy efficiency, carbon financing, increased access to energy and promotion of climate change and climate adaptation activities.
At present, the African Development Bank has produced a pipeline and portfolio of a large number of renewable energy projects, partly due to continuous investment and partly due to skills and support from the Danish International Development Agency (DANIDA)
Technical assistance.
The next portfolio, which is about $0. 95 billion, has developed a pipeline that includes 921 MW of wind power.
Energy Project, 283 MW of small hydropower, 410 MW of cogeneration, 480 MW of geothermal and over 150 kg/year of biodiesel project.
At the same time, in cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Two important projects:a)
Development of cogeneration in seven countries (
Sudan, Swazi, Tanzania and Uganda), and (b)
Development of small and medium-sized enterprises
Hydropower scale in eight countries (
Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Mozambique, Malawi, Rwanda and Burundi)
It\'s coming to an end.
ADB is assisting its DMCs to increase the share of renewable energy projects in the energy mix and at low-carbon path.
ADB invested $0. 204 billion in 2003-
Pipeline of renewable energy projects in 2006 and 2007
2009 is almost $1. (1)billion.
ADB brings together several trust funds from the governments of Canada, Denmark, Finland and the Netherlands to establish renewable energy, energy efficiency and climate change (REACH)program.
It assists DMC in addressing policy, market, financial and structural barriers to renewable energy and energy efficiency and in developing institutional and technical capacities of government and local institutions.
In order to focus on reducing carbon emissions from power plants, oil and gas facilities, the multilateral development bank is also conducting investment and analytical support aimed at reducing emissions from thermal sources.
Some interventions are under way, including recovery of thermal power plants, improvement of efficiency of transmission and distribution networks, upgrading of efficiency of new thermal power plants, early retirement and use of countries-of-the-
Art facilities, support for carbon capture and storage, reduction in gas combustion and reduction in methane release.
Specific projects to upgrade thermal power plants in the World Bank, India and China are already under preparation.
The EIB also has an active power plant upgrade portfolio, which has recently adopted a more stringent set of standards, including upgrades and extended life, as mentioned.
ADB is currently working on a new energy strategy.
This strategy will encourage the adoption of available, cleaner heat in DMCs-
Powertechnologies.
In this regard, ADB will assist DMCs in working with developed countries to transfer better new technologies that can be transferred from the development phase to the deployment phase.
The SEI of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development specifically supports the study of recommended repairs and renovations or fuels
Switching Strategies for large thermal power plants, assessing the potential of \"clean coal technology\" in countries operating by the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and reviewing opportunities and obstacles for projects that reduce natural gas combustion.
The EBRD is already implementing a power plant recovery project, as described in box 2.
In view of the high energy consumption level of its large regional heating network operating cities, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development also emphasized in particular the improvement of energy efficiency in zoning operations in the context of the Environmental Protection Initiative.
The EIB is also expanding loans to health protection centres and zoning them, especially in new Member States.
The EU considers the capture and storage of carbon dioxide (CCS)
An important option in a series of measures to reduce C [O. sub. 2]emissions.
It is promoting an initiative to accelerate the development and early adoption of CCS, working closely with the energy industry and potential technology partners, mainly through a zero-emission technology platform (ZETP)
Tools to encourage cooperation and information sharing.
The main purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of these technologies, or in the case that they are still needed, the combination of these technologies in order to obtain some preliminary experience of the actual cost of these technologies, and develop some regulatory and financial models for CCS.
At the heart of this initiative is the plan for a flagship programme that may have 12 industrial sectors
Scale of Sustainable Fossil Fuels
Thermal Power Plant (
Carbon capture facilities included)
The associated carbon transport and storage infrastructure will be completed in 2015.
China and/or India should have at least one such flagship factory.
The EIB is working with the European Commission and ZETP to develop appropriate financial support mechanisms for flagship projects in particular.
The cost of Giventotal may be around $10 billion, and there will inevitably be a lot of recourse to the market --
Based on financial mechanisms.
World Bank\'s global plan to reduce natural gas combustion (GGFR)Phase II 2007-
09 high focus-
Countries and regions such as Russia, the Middle East and the Gulf of Guinea have been affected.
The gas burning reduction project being prepared includes Danilovsk natural gas-to-
Power JI project in Russia and AFAM gas-to-
Electricity project in Nigeria.
Medco Kaji Gas Co. to-
The LPG demonstration project in Indonesia is being verified.
Petrobras, in partnership with GGFR, agreed to explore opportunities for gas combustion and emission reduction.
The clean energy investment framework of the African Development Bank emphasizes increased use of natural gas for power generation and clean coal for power generation.
A good example of increasing the use of natural gas in electricity production is the West African Gas Pipeline Project and the Nigerian liquefied natural gas (NLNG)
Projects jointly funded by the World Bank.
The latter enables the export of natural gas produced as a by-product of Nigeria\'s oil production to multilateral development banks in Ghana, Togo and Benin, which appear to have great opportunities to further utilize their collective efforts in thermal power, help their customers achieve a significant reduction in greenhouse gases per megawatt.
In the foreseeable future, thermal power plants, especially those using coal, will remain the main source of electricity in countries such as India and China.
The multilateral development bank is therefore committed to continuing to focus on these issues.
As part of the solid waste management program, methane capture methane provides one of the most economically attractive climates --
Change mitigation options.
As shown in Box 3, the methane capture option has the potential to be quickly integrated into the mainstream of urban strategies in developing countries.
MDBs has launched a project to provide analytical support for landfill methane capture projects.
For example, the World Bank ESMAPprogram supports two
Phase-by-phase land-for-gas initiative in Latin America and the Caribbean (LCR).
The first phase is designed to help LCRclient countries better understand
Practice business models and institutional arrangements to develop unconventional energy sources in large urban landfill sites in the LCR region through LFG recycling and utilization systems.
This will be achieved by documenting and disseminating best practices and sound technical guidance.
The goal of the second phase is to identify potential new projects that can serve as the basis for regional bank projects and in
Investment work for each site.
The EIB focuses on similar investment in landfill sites and wastewater treatment, especially in the southern Mediterranean region.
The Islamic Development Bank conducted a series of assessments on opportunities for landfill gas capture and energy generation potential, including the assessment of Central American waste disposal systems and landfill conditions, and a preliminary assessment of the carbon potential of specific landfill sites in the region.
As a result of these assessments, the bank is now assisting countries in the preparation of funding for methane capture projects under the CDM.
The bank also commissioned an economic assessment of methane capture and its use for energy generation, with a large sample of landfill sites collected throughout the region.
This information is used as an input to the development of screening tools that help project sponsors in the region and the bank\'s project team conduct a preliminary assessment of the carbon potential of landfill sites.
The Islamic Development Bank is also developing landfill sites --gas-to-
Provide energy projects with CDM components to some cities in Latin America.
ADB also supported several coal mine gas mining and utilization projects in China.
One of them is the methane project of Fuxin Coal Mine in Liaoning province.
It improves the safety conditions of the community and provides methane for residents and nearby industries.
It is considered a viable carbon investment opportunity, attracting strong interest from buyers through ADB\'s credit marketing mechanism.
ADB also supported many landfill gas projects, as well as methane capture and utilization projects in agricultural waste.
The Asian Development Bank and the World Bank are active members of the US government-driven \"open to the market\" partnership. S.
Environmental Protection Bureau.
Estimates of carbon emissions reduction in the transport sector indicate that the transport sector contributes about 14% of global emissions, making it a key sector for climate change
Change intervention.
In 2002, the transport sector accounted for 21% of global energy consumption, and it is expected that by 2025, the transport sector will account for more than 60% of total energy usage growth.
The close connection between economic growth and transportation
Over time, greenhouse gases generated can be alleviated through changes in travel behavior, logistics decisions, technology selection and transport patterns.
These factors, in turn, are affected by planning, financial and regulatory measures, and public investment in infrastructure.
Currently, TheMDBs is reviewing their transportation strategies and plans with a view to making them more climate friendly.
One of the pillars of ADB\'s clean energy and environment projects (CE&EP)
Sustainable transport initiative (STI)
Develop a coherent development framework that provides models for effective and efficient transport systems.
At present, the transportation sector is the largest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in Asia and the fastest-emitting country.
Growth sector in contribution.
In 2006, APEC carried out analytical work that will lead to the development of policy frameworks that will guide investment and address energy efficiency and climate change in the Asian transport sector.
Energy efficiency and climate change considerations\"
\"Road transport\" is one of the first comprehensive efforts to analyze the relationship between the transport sector and climate change in Asia over the next 25 years.
The results of the analysis clearly show that even the most optimistic scenario, including all the expected technological improvements, will result in a triple increase in [carbon]O. sub. 2]
Emissions from this period.
The study concluded that the aparadm transformation would be needed to reach a new Asian consensus on economic development mobility to guide decision-making and investment decisions in urban development and transportation.
In order to achieve this vision, the study recommends some policy interventions to improve the energy efficiency of transportation (Box 4).
As part of scientific and technological innovation, ADB is currently implementing a regional technical assistance program that will develop (a)
The strategic development framework of sustainable urban transportation ,(b)
A set of effective investment programs to support efficient urban transport systems, and (c)
An innovative financing scheme.
This work will also identify specific investment projects in the ADB project pipeline and ensure that an enabling environment is conducive to successful implementation.
The selection of review items under the Sustainable Urban Transport Project includes climate-
The impact of changes in mobilization, including the integration of public-
Bus, city subway, bus, bus
Optimization of Line franchise, traffic management and railway
Cargo terminal.
Parallel work within ADB is reviewing the revised methodology to strengthen investment decision-making and fully integrate into the environment --
Impact of changes in the project evaluation process.
II and III technical assistance will be implemented during 2008
2010 and a greater focus on energy efficiency in transport to help identify and implement the necessary policy updates and relevant institutional capacity-building, while complying with the financial structure of transport infrastructure and public transport systems.
At the end of 2005, ADB launched a study called the Asia clean fuel and vehicle roadmap, which assesses the link between fuel quality and air emissions.
The report, which will be published in 2007, is expected to include a focus on integrating fuel quality and vehicle emission standards and standardizing fuel quality specifications, update fuel refining in Asia for the introduction of cleaner fuels and take financial measures to ensure the absorption of cleaner fuels.
The Asian Development Bank has been involved in the integration of ofair-
Incorporate quality management and sustainable transport into the economic and social strategies, policies, projects and projects of its DMCs. CAI-
Asia, established in 2001 with the support of ADB, has sustainable cities-
The sustainable urban transport partnership in Asia promotes the transport agenda (PSUTA)
Procedure and SUMA procedure (see Box 5).
The PSUTA project conducted a case study to examine the impact of traffic in Hanoi, Pune and Xi\'an on pollution, congestion and safety.
The World Bank is currently finalizing an update to its transport infrastructure strategy, originally approved in 2002, to understand the sector\'s contribution to climate change.
Interventions include (a)
Limit transportation energy consumption ,(b)
Assessment and Control of transport emissions ,(c)
To promote the transition to a low-carbon model, and (d)
Develop guidelines for efficient transportation planning and decision making in the environmentmaking.
Several new projects aimed at reducing C [O. sub. 2]
For example, the Karnataka Highway Transportation Company (KSRTC)
The bus biofuels and maintenance program in India will support engine adjustment and tire replacement, replacement of water induction kits and the introduction of biofuels.
Low support through the San Diego urban transport modernization programEmission Bus--
Compressed natural gas (CNG)
Hybrid or electric engine technology; a clean-
Energy components designed to improve on-board engine efficiency are central elements of the Bangladesh Inland Waterway project.
The EBRD is developing investment opportunities to reduce urban infrastructure emissions, with a special focus on urban transport.
TheSEI supports feasibility studies and institutional strengthening (
Special attention to tariff reform and measures to increase affordability)
And land development assistance. Use-
Transportation policies and/or sustainable transportation strategies for cities in the region.
Building on the existing vital public transport networks in most Eastern European cities, there is a significant opportunity to reduce carbon emissions associated with urban transport.
AfDB will focus on the improvement of the transportation system, including selective support for large-scale and rapid transportation (MRT)
Investment, including low
Fast transit network and high-emission busspeed electric-
In particular, electricity light rail networks in major cities such as Yadis Abba, Cairo, Johannesburg, Lagos, Sands and Nairobi.
Public transport is combined with appropriate road prices and non-motorized transport
Friendly City planning will reduce traffic congestion and help with more efficient traffic maintenance and policing.
The Islamic Development Bank has been expanding its support for the rapid transit system, with more than 10 operations in nine countries.
The bank is preparing for another eight rapid transit operations.
World behavior assessed the potential of carbon emission reduction in urban transport and opportunities for clean development mechanisms.
The Islamic Development Bank has also provided funding to address the key methodological challenges of establishing a Clean Development Mechanism Project in urban transport (
Focus on basic development and add-on)
, Is now identifying carbon financing opportunities in some medium-sized urban transport projects
Large and small cities in LAC.
Reducing emissions and reducing REDD emissions through afforestation and avoiding deforestation are particularly important opportunities to reduce greenhouse gases in developing countries.
Deforestation and land emissions
Usage changes are estimated to account for more than third of the total emissions of developing countries each year.
Long-term use of carbon markets
It is widely believed that limiting deforestation is an attractive option.
Progress in reducing deforestation is both mitigating and adaptive to developing countries.
The World Bank\'s bio-Carbon Fund was established in 2004.
Effective emission reduction through carbon storage while promoting biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction.
The fund consists of two parts: the first part was operational in May 2004 with a total capital of $53.
8 million further participation is not allowed.
The second part began operation in March 2007.
Parts 1 and 2 mainly support afforestation and afforestation projects under the Kyoto Protocol;
However, they also support pilot projects to avoid deforestation that are currently not in compliance with the Kyoto Protocol.
In the area of avoiding deforestation, the World Bank has been working closely with donor countries and developing countries, international organizations and the private sector to design the Forest Carbon Partnership Fund (FCPF).
The FCPF is designed to assist the Member States of the International Development Association and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development in their efforts to reduce REDD emissions.
It is committed to developing new mechanisms (
Market and non-marketmarket)
For those countries that are not currently addressed through the carbon market, avoid deforestation and degradation.
FCPF will provide a lot of resources for capacity
Construction and technical assistance, as well as funds for pilot incentives and the purchase of carbon assets.
By the end of 2007, the FCPF had been approved by the board of directors of the World Bank and some 20 developing countries had expressed interest in participating.
Some existing projects are also supporting REDD activities, such as PROFOR (2)and FLEG. (3)
In addition, regional projects such as pilot projects/G-
Brazil is committed to developing the capacity to successfully implement any plan to compensate developing countries for reducing deforestation emissions.
According to the second part of the Biological Carbon Fund, the World Bank has carried out an analysis on how to develop the clean development mechanism
Qualified programs to protect soil carbon in agricultural areas and pastures.
A pilot operation is planned in SSA.
Agricultural waste-
Liquid and solid waste from crop, livestock and industrial food production-
Is an important source of greenhouse gas emissions.
The World Bank is supporting a wide range of projects to use these wastes while reducing greenhouse gas emissions, such as rice crust and sugar residue for power generation.
In WB-, several related projects were prepared and signed in fiscal 07
The Managed Carbon Fund, including a demonstration in Nepal, indicates that carbon financing income can be fully guaranteed through projects implemented at the national level for bio-biogas digesters financing at the agricultural level.
In June 2007, the Inter-American Development Bank organized a regional workshop on the technical and scientific aspects of avoiding deforestation related to Latin America and the Caribbean.
The aim is to bring together policy makers, scientists and non-governmental organizations in the region to enhance understanding of the benefits and opportunities to reduce deforestation and degraded emissions in Latin America and the Caribbean. As afollow-
In this regard, the World Bank is preparing technical assistance for countries to support the development of methodologies and capacity-building on an assisted basis, so that carbon financing can be used to reduce those related to the avoidance or reduction of deforestation
ADB is launching a downward movement in Southeast Asia under its Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS)
Core environmental projects and plant landscape conservation activities in Borneo.
According to the GMS project, the biodiversity corridor initiative is testing conservation methods on land other than formal protected areas, including the use of carbon finance to encourage forest conservation and land selection
Reduce greenhouse gas emissions, provide local livelihoods and protect biodiversity.
In Borneo, ADB is working with government agencies and NGOs to develop and implement plans to protect the remaining highland forests, including potentially applying the red approach to attracting carbon financing.
The European Investment Bank is actively considering possible ways to intervene in this complex sector.
It has financially contributed to a small and large afforestation and afforestation plan.
It follows the World Bank
Led the work of the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility and launched with European private groups
This is a joint review of market opportunities for ecosystem funds.
Importance of land
Changes in the use of global greenhouse gas emissions and deforestation, the multilateral development bank\'s efforts in this area remain modest.
However, they committed themselves to increasing the priority of this sub-sector and to developing an appropriate set of interventions.
All multilateral development banks have begun efforts to promote new financial instruments and methods for low-carbon financing
Make carbon investments by raising funds to promote innovation and help finance the incremental costs of these projects.
These efforts include innovation in financial products and support for the further development of the carbon market.
Since 2000, the World Bank Group has pioneered the carbon market and contributed to its emergence, development and growth by managing a large amount of carbon funds and facilities, now worth more than $2 billion.
Based on this experience, WBG continues to develop new approaches as trustees of carbon funds and facilities, thereby facilitating the expansion of the carbon market and testing new approaches to building and financing the creation of carbon assets.
The board recently approved two important new facilities.
First, the Carbon Partnership Facility (CPF)
Funding will be provided for the development and purchase of carbon assets to reduce emissions, far exceeding the current commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, emphasizing programmes and sectors --
Approaches to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and promote energy supply
Carbon development paths for developing and transition economies.
The CPF governance structure aims to form a partnership between buyers and sellers of carbon assets.
In addition, the new facility is expected to help maintain continuity in the carbon market while continuing international negotiations on the post-2012 regime under the Climate Convention and provide practical experience, help regulators develop institutional frameworks for legal, greenhouse gas reduction efforts.
Second new facility, forest carbon partner facility (FCPF)
The aim is to assist the Member States of the International Development Association and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development in their efforts to reduce REDD emissions.
FCPF will strive to develop mechanisms (
Market and non-market)
Provide incentives to avoid forest degradation issues that are not currently addressed through the carbon market.
FCPF will include significant resources through capacity assessment mechanisms
Establish and provide technical assistance and support for pilot incentives and the purchase of carbon assets.
Other innovative approaches being developed by the World Bank in collaboration with itsclient countries include a green investment plan for the Middle East and Eastern European countries, which will use emission revenue for further emissions --
Reduce activity and develop mechanisms to increase carbon price discovery by using, for example, auction credits for emission reduction.
IFC is also promoting a new product, the carbon emission guarantee, to guarantee the provision of carbon credits from projects in developing countries to companies and financial institutions in industrialized countries, thereby increasing the value of sellers, at the same time eliminate the buyer\'s project delivery risk.
In addition to the establishment of a multilateral carbon credit fund, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development will support the development of the operating country\'s carbon market (MCCF)
Cooperate with EIB.
SEI supports project preparation for complex transactions, climate workshops in the region, and approval procedures for passing projects under the joint implementation and Clean Development Mechanism of KyotoProtocol.
The EIB has significantly improved its position in the carbon industry, with three funds in operation by the medium term
2007, all of this is working with other mdb, each aiming at a niche in the market.
The first one is above-
Reference to [0. 165 billion]euro]
MCCF and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, second DWAS 50 million [euro]
European carbon fund (CFE)
The third is the 100 million of the World Bank [euro]
EIB/KfW carbon project.
In addition, since the beginning of 2007, the European Investment Bank has brought together the European public.
Sector financial institutions designed to establish 100 million [euro]
A fund designed to make carbon credit a more valuable and effective project --
Financial instruments through special after
2012 Kyoto credit stream-
Projects that meet the requirements.
The board of directors of the EIB has approved participation, and other founder participants are expected to be approved in order to launch operations by the end of the year.
Carbon market initiative (CMI)
Is one of the newcomers to support clean energy, energy efficiency development under ADB\'s clean energy and environment projects, as well as other GHGabatement projects in Asia and Pacific developing countries that are in compliance with the Kyoto Protocol clean development mechanism.
Most of the existing carbon procurement funds provide payment only when the project is completed and the carbon credit line is delivered.
As a result, many clean
Energy projects are facing a serious pre-financing gap, which hinders their development in the first place.
ADB proposes to address these obstacles through a dedicated, comprehensive and integrated CMI.
It has three components: * Asia-Pacific Carbon Fund (APCF)
Trust fund of $0. 151 billion, 25-
The Clean Development Mechanism project in its DMCs will have 50% carbon credits in the future.
* Technical support facilities provide comprehensive technical support for project sponsors to develop CDM-
Eligible projects
* Credit marketing mechanism provides marketing support services to project sponsors to obtain the best price and terms of sale for certified emission reduction (CERs)
Not purchased by APCF in openmarket.
Unique combination of Asian Development Bank
Basic financing, early carbon financing and comprehensive technical assistance are designed to promote the number of projects that can contribute to climate change mitigation.
Islamic Development Bank is working with the publicand private-
Industry customers in the region will increase the number of projects eligible for carbon financing and promote access to the international carbon market in Latin America and the Caribbean.
In addition to financing infrastructure projects, the Islamic Development Bank is also committed to reducing transaction costs related to low-carbon projects (
Conduct pre-feasibility and feasibility studies to support the preparation of project documents related to CDM projects, including development methods, and assist in the sale of certified emission reductions;
Promoting scale-up in a programmatic and sectoral manner
Impact on low carbon;
Reduce the risk of project development and delivery).
The Islamic Development Bank is also working with local financial entities at low-
Carbon projects in Latin America and the Caribbean, establish credit lines, guarantee loans issued by local banks, and promote equity investment in the clean sector
Energy fund oriented to identification and development, small-low
Carbon projects in the region.
The African Development Bank plans to soon establish a multi-donor trust fund dedicated to technical assistance to countries to expand energy supply, develop renewable energy, promote energy efficiency and support climate adaptation programmes, and benefit from international carbon financing opportunities.
Ceacafa will be a multi-donor trust fund open to external development partners in Africa ---
Governments, multilateral institutions, NGOs, charities and private enterprises-
The goal is to add at least one additional account Unit (UAs)5-
10 million-2008 for operation2012.
The CEACAFA project is currently in the early stages of development and its structure will be aligned with the recently approved trust fund and open to multiple donor contributions.
To scale up
The African Development Bank is working with the World Bank and other United Nations agencies under the Nairobi framework to increase Africa\'s participation in the carbon market (NF)
Improving coordination between different capabilities
Activities to increase donor opportunities (see Box 6).
In addition to the above interventions, the multilateral development bank is currently considering new financing facilities.
MDB and private-for example-
Department working group (see below)
Requirements for the project have been identified
Specifically supporting the substantial upfront additional costs of purchasing pre-commercial technologies that have the potential to significantly reduce future emissions growth: IGCC and IGCC with carbon capture and storage technologies, for example.
Financing instruments with multiple windows will provide tailor-made financing, including grants and preferential and non-preferential loans, to best meet the needs of projects under consideration.
Donor countries can fund the grant portion through a combination of cash and pledges.
Facilities for long-term support
Long-term carbon investment by purchasing more than 2012 of emissions to reduce and help reduce deforestation is also a consideration at different stages.
The \"high impact\" countries of the multilateral development bank in determining national priorities have considered different levels of CHG emissions from individual countries.
For example, more than half of greenhouse gas emissions from developing countries come from
Group of Eight countries-
China, India, Mexico, Brazil and South Africa.
In this regard, it is important to recognize that all five countries of the Group of Eight have begun to develop at a low level.
Carbon growth strategy.
China recently announced its low
Now, we will extend this time frame to 2030.
The Indian Planning Commission directed preparations for alternativelow
The carbon development path announced last year and plans to consolidate the government\'s position by the end of this year.
Mexico recently unveiled a national strategy on climate change, which is to deepen analysis and promote low implementationCarbon Project.
Brazil has set up the Secretariat of the Ministry of Climate Change and is currently in the early stages of developing a climate change strategy.
South Africa developed a national climate change response strategy in 2004 and is currently preparing a long-term
Climate change mitigation programme will be completed in the medium term2008.
The World Bank is assisting the five countries of the Group of Eight to develop these strategies.
Specifically, low.
Carbon Growth Research is currently underway in India, China, Mexico and Brazil, and similar research is expected to begin in South Africa soon.
EBRD has been working on a comprehensive approach to major greenhouse gases
Emissions from Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan.
Preliminary analysis of identifying low-low priority areas
The carbon development path has shown the unique production potential and key sectors of each country.
For example, avoiding deforestation, water and electricity and biofuels seems to be some of the key areas in Brazil, while the oil, gas and transport sectors are important for Mexico.
As far as India is concerned, greenhouse gas emission reduction may involve areas such as coal-fired power plants; hydropower;
Energy efficiency in the commercial building, home and industrial sectors;
Improved transportation of fuel;
Changes in land use in the agricultural sector (see Box 7).
The difference in greenhouse gas emission reduction opportunities between China and India is also clear, although coal usage is large, considering the difference in per capita consumption levels and access to modern fuels.
The uniqueness of each country\'s case shows that,
Up is an important addition-
Identify national opportunitieslevel, sector-
Specific mitigation actions-
To the existing extensive, global
A horizontal analysis was conducted in the report discussed above.
EIB recently approved a multi-project facility of 0. 5 billion [euro]
China supports projects that contribute to climate change
Change mitigation.
The beneficiaries include government agencies, municipalities, utility companies and companies, including public-
Private Partnership (PPPs)
Invest in projects that help avoid or reduce greenhouse gas emissions by using renewable energy, energy efficiency or capturing and using or storing greenhouse gases.
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