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the universe: century of scientific breakthroughs

by:Marslite     2020-01-08
No one would say that theoretical physicists don\'t like to play.
Just for Lawrence M.
Klaus, an outstanding American. S.
A scientist and author of the universe from scratch.
Claus has a good understanding of what happened in almost every ERA in 14 billion years. give or take —
All this has passed since the birth of time, but the period that fascinates him most seems to be the first to come.
\"The first second of the universe is the most interesting moment in the history of the universe,\" he said . \".
Claus is not alone in this belief.
The Large Hadron Collider is a huge particle accelerator that runs under the borders of France and Switzerland, and researchers have spent many years
Not to mention billions of dollars.
Trying to replicate the conditions that were originally present in the life of the universe.
Not just the first second.
First microsecond
\"We are now near the first trillionth,\" Claus said . \".
As almost everyone on Earth with an Internet connection knows, the main purpose of this massive scientific effort is to find the next little spot --to-
The nothingness of the Higgs particle.
Due to its supposed effect on other sub-particles, it is sometimes called the God particle
The Higgs particle was named after British physicist Peter Higgs, one of the first scientists to predict the existence of Higgs.
According to the theory, only by interacting with the Higgs particles and their associated auras (called the Higgs field), other Infinitus acquire their recognized moderate mass distribution, just as the packaging that is viewed at the flea market may accumulate something.
Until this summer, the Higgs particle existed only as a hypothesis in a theory called the Standard Model, which describes the early life of the universe.
No one actually detected this thing, so it\'s a toss
Whether it exists or not.
If the Higgs particle does exist, then the standard model may be reasonable.
If not, then it goes back to the drawings of theoretical physicists around the world.
As it happens, recent findings from large European underground research institutions strongly suggest that the Higgs particles are real, although it is too early to be sure.
Robert man, a professor of physics at the University of Waterloo, said: \"its properties must be measured . \".
If, as most experts expect, the measurements come out, then our species will take a big step towards a comprehensive and coherent understanding of the universe and why it is --
Especially why it contains both energy and matter, not just energy.
Please note that it\'s not a big deal.
If you scatter three marbles inside the cathedral
This is said to be the case-
The resulting arrangement of small glass balls will be much more dense than the arrangement of any star in any corner of the universe.
Nevertheless, we should be thankful for what we have.
Claus said: \"If the Higgs field does not exist, the universe will look very different, and you and I will not exist.
\"But we did, and this article is the first in a series of articles that will appear over the next few weekends --
Almost entirely math.
Freedom to explore the amazing advances that humanity has made in physics and astronomy in the past century or so, dating back to 1905, and published a 31-
A page paper entitled \"Electrodynamics of Moving Objects\" has reached its climax this year with the apparent discovery of Higgs particles.
These 1905 scientific papers are 26-year-
An old Swiss patent clerk named Albert Einstein outlined an amazing new explanation of our physical environment, which was later called special relativity.
\"Special\" because it only deals with the behavior of objects that are constantly moving relative to each other.
In 1916, more than ten years later, Einstein will come up with his general theory of relativity, which is a greater achievement. It completely changes our view of the physical world and explains acceleration, deceleration and gravity never imagined before.
It turns out that the general theory is an extremely accurate means of predicting and understanding the universe\'s massive operations, planets, stars, and galaxies.
But this particular theory is also revolutionary.
Its conclusion depends to some extent on the progress of early researchers and theorists, because science is a continuous structure based on itself, but Einstein\'s brain also marks the beginning: A century of extraordinary scientific breakthroughs revealed
Stars, galaxies, black holes, and seductive mysteries that no one can imagine before 100.
Even Einstein did not, but he lit up the road.
Some people call 1905 the miracle year of Einstein.
In just a few months, young Germans
The natural genius completed four stunning original theoretical papers in a row, any of which would qualify him for scientific immortality.
One studies the molecular structure of a substance and the other studies the particle properties of light.
To win Einstein the Nobel Prize)
The third section outlines relativity, which subverts our understanding of space and time in the process. In a three-
Appendix to relativity-
Published as a separate article
Einstein unconsciously saw the development of the atomic bomb, thus outlining the equivalent relationship between mass and energy.
As for Relativity, the name of the theory may be misnomer.
After all, its core insight is not that many things in this universe are relative, but that a fundamental entity is not relative. Light.
It is always the same speed for all observers.
Everything else you can think
Sports car, tennis, frying pan, Don Cherry-
Moving at relative speed, the speed varies from the observer to the Observer.
For example, if you are a passenger on a car with a speed of 60 kilometers per hour, you throw a tennis ball forward from the open window at a speed of 15 kilometers per hour, depending on the observer, the ball will have each of the following speeds: 75 km/h relative to your 15 km/h, compared to the person standing on the side of the road, compared to the car driver who approaches your vehicle at 40 km/h, 115 km/h.
Each of these values is correct.
For some observers
Different light.
Not only is it very fast
When you pass this sentence, the impulse of light can go around the Earth about 70 times.
But this is absolute.
This is always the same for all observers and all views.
If you shine a flashlight beam directly while driving a 60 km/h car, for each observer, the light travels at the same constant speed
300,000,000 per second.
You yourself are no different than the speed of the beam.
You will not move relative to a beam of light.
To put it simply, light is not tennis.
Although it has particles
As Einstein speculated, just like the quality, light as a kind of Forever
Radiation ripple that can work at a speed-
Speed of light.
Einstein was not alone in understanding this unique feature of light, but only he managed to decipher its surprising meaning, even though it took him several years.
In short, if the light is the same, then the other two pillars of the natural world --
Time and Spacecannot be.
This is a thought experiment that conveys the main points of Einstein\'s special theory of relativity, while calling only one mathematical calculation based on the equations you may have learned at school.
The equation is the bidagolas theorem, which, as you may remember, points to the right-
The angular triangle is equal to the sum of squares on each other.
That\'s all the math you need.
In fact, you don\'t even need it.
Now, take the TTC tram.
Imagine that you are standing by the side of the road and waiting for the next 200 km/h car coming from the east. (
Obviously, given its speed, this must be one of the new models that hasn\'t been delivered yet. )
Next, imagine.
A famous Street fan named Rob Ford is in the car.
He stood in the aisle and played a tennis ball up and down a metre above the floor.
From Ford\'s point of view, this means that every time the ball bounces, the ball has to walk a vertical distance of two metres.
Pour one metre, one metre.
Suppose it takes half a second from the ball leaving the mayor\'s hand to the ball coming back.
Now, let\'s look at the same situation from your point of view at the tram station.
As you can see, every time the tennis ball leaves Ford\'s hand, hits the floor of the tram, and comes back, it not only drops a metre, rises a metre, but also goes 27 metres.
8 m-
A tram with a speed of 200 kilometers per hour will travel in half a second.
Let\'s do it again for clarity.
From Ford\'s point of view, the ball moves two metres away.
One metre straight, one metre straight.
Relative to you, it travels about 28 m on the diagonal, first down and then up.
Despite the cognitive differences between you and the mayor, in both cases, the ball returns to Ford at the same time --after . 5 seconds.
The reason is simple.
Granted, the ball has to go further from your point of view, but it also goes faster --
200/hour, same speed as tram, plus extra cost for ball vertical movement
So everything goes well.
This is the simple life of tennis.
But let\'s replace tennis with a beam of light.
Suppose the beam travels along a vertical path from the launch device on the train floor, up until it hits the pocket mirror in Rob Ford\'s hand a metre higher than the floor.
The reflected beam then returns to the receptor connected to the transmitting device.
Just to make things interesting.
Because the relativity effect only becomes significant at extremely high speeds.
Suppose the tram is traveling at half the speed of light.
From Mayor Ford\'s point of view on the tram, the beam only needs to flash from the floor to the faintest moment of his mirror and back --
It takes two metres to walk.
This result is 0 if you want to know.
0000000067 seconds
But from your fixed advantage at the tram station, the same light pulse has to be a bit further than two metres away.
This is the same as what we have encountered in tennis, although the gap is very small now.
According to the mayor\'s opinion, driving at half the speed of light, the tram will move forward one horizontal meter in the time required by the beam, up and down two meters.
So from your point of view, from Ford\'s point of view, the light has to be farther than it is --
Like tennis.
But, unlike tennis, it has to travel at the same absolute speed in both cases.
Even without using math, it is clear that there are two different distances to cover. But the math —
In this case, the bidagolas theorem
Can be used to calculate the gap, think it is right
An angular triangle with a height of two metres (
The distance the light must move up and down)
The horizontal axis is one metre long (
From your point of view, the distance the light has to move forward).
The calculation is simple and the following results are obtained.
In Rob Ford\'s estimate, the time it takes for the beam to move up and down 2 metres, it has to move the diagonal distance of 2.
236 from your angle.
If it\'s tennis alone, it\'s fine.
From your vantage point at the tram station, all you need to do is add the speed of light to the speed of the tram and everything will be fine.
The beam moves faster relative to you than it moves relative to the mayor, so you and Rob Ford totally agree --
For the first time ever!
But it\'s not tennis.
It is a kind of wave that constantly oscillates.
Magnetic Radiation working at only one speed and one speed-
Speed of light.
For all observers in all positions, it is the same speed, no matter how they move, or whether they move or not.
Unlike tennis, from one vantage point, the beam cannot be seen much faster than from another vantage point.
Anyway, it\'s the same speed.
Get back to Rob Ford and you.
Obviously you don\'t agree with the mayor.
Within the time required for the beam to move 2 m for him, it must move 2 m.
Provide you 236 at exactly the same speed.
Judging by the classical laws of physics
From the time of Sir Isaac Newton, the law of defining time and space as constants --
This contradiction cannot be solved.
The classic law works well at the slow speed we usually encounter in our daily lives.
But at a speed close to the speed of light, many of the principles of Newton\'s physics have been broken.
How about these two competing versions of the beam?
Mayor and yours.
Is it made into a compatible sequence of events?
According to classical physics, they can\'t.
But they can, according to the special theory of relativity.
After years of intense thinking, Einstein found the only possible solution, although it was counter-intuitive.
If the light does not accelerate or slow downand it won’t —
Then some other attributes of the universe must be given.
It turns out that this characteristic is so-called immutable of space and time --
Or, as Einstein defined, time and space, because the two concepts are actually just different aspects of a single phenomenon.
The beam on the tram is 2 m or 2 m.
236 within a given time measurement range?
It turns out that the answer is simple and contradictory.
In a way, it has both.
In order to make this possible and to avoid tearing the rent in the structure created, two things must happen.
The length of the tram must be shortened, and the time on the tram must be slowed down --
From your point of view, that\'s what they do.
From your point of view, the clock on the tram will be a second slower than your watch --
Represents the time required to travel on a slightly shortened TTC tram.
Run 236 at half the speed of light.
These effects are called space expansion and time expansion.
Or more accurately, the expansion of time and space
They become more noticeable as objects close to the speed of light.
If the tram carrying Rob Ford can reach the speed of light (
Physically impossible, but let\'s pretend)
, Then the time will stop completely, and the forward projection of the vehicle in space will shrink to zero, at least from your perspective as a still observer.
This is the only way the universe can function.
The only way to accommodate a constant speed of light within a space and time frame --
But the universe is very different from the much smaller neighbors who think they live before Einstein\'s mirus mirabilis.
The new universe
The real universe
Is a place where space expands and shrinks for different observers, and time speeds up or slows down depending on the movement of the object.
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