yunnanese sounds: creativity and alterity in the dance and music scenes of urban yunnan.
From rock and pop to pophop and dance.
It explores the musical expressions of Kunming, as well as smaller cities and towns such as Dali and Jinghong.
Kunming is probably the second stone in China. n-
Roll back to the city.
The multiple meanings and associations of this musical expression have been explored in a wider range of Chinese politics.
In a changing China, music offers a creative negotiating venue for forging new identities.
Nightclubs, discotheques and punk shows are now a familiar part of the landscape of Chinese urban streets.
This paper explores the vibrant dance and music scene of Yunnan city.
It involves music expressions in Kunming, Yunnan province, as well as smaller cities and towns including Dali and Jinghong.
I provide insight into the diversity of fashion youth music expressions (
From rock to hip hophop and dance)
Explore the diversity of this expression, while offering ideas that inspire these young people.
Yunnan is the most populous province in China.
According to the official classification of China, more than 25 non-Han peoples.
It is for this reason, and because of its fascinating scenery that Yunnan is currently being promoted to an ecologicalandethnic-
A narrative of local classification (native place)
Ethnic groups, gender, and ethnic groups are an integral part of ethnography, which reveals diverse, overlapping and complex themes.
This article should not be understood as a direct comparison between Yunnan rock and disco world, but rather an exploration of the transformative and creative expression of music and dance in the ongoing identity negotiation process.
Most music scenes in Yunnan include (in both senses)
Spark of Rebellion
However, the evidence provided here explains that it is too simple to see any of them as necessarily opposing the country\'s vision for China.
Music and dance scenes in Yunnan can be interpreted as embedded with a large number of hints, so they are places of great potential and creativity within and between traditional/innovative; global/local;
Rebellion/compliance; Han/non-Han and so on. (1)
I think they also show the complexity of the relationship between creation and destruction and the deformation inherent in the generation transformation.
In this article, the situation in Yunnan and other \"super\"
Fusion \"/\" mixed \"music expression (2)
For example, some forms of \"British Asian/German\" music scene and cross-genderglobal hip-hop community. (3)
This is done to provide comparative evidence of the way music and dance are used as \"sound strategies\" to \"open up space in contemporary China,\" namely, the ability to negotiate a conversion of identity. (4)
The research in this paper was conducted between 1997.
During that time, there were more and more cafes, bars and discotheques in Kunming.
Many of these venues combine art galleries and host performances for live bands and other performers.
Music played in these nightclubs from soft pop music ,(6)
Chinese rock and punk, dance and technology, and later hip-
Jump, garage and reggae (
Especially Bob Marley, although also enjoying the voice of reggae and Ballroom)
Occasionally, drum \'n base and Desi /(post)Bhangra beats. (7)
They can all be considered as the place of the interface where foreign and nationalist, central and peripheral, male and female, Han and \"minority\" issues are being played, debated and
The British Desi Music scene provides a vivid example of the realization and enhancement of great creative potential through multicultural interaction in such an interface. Many post-
Bhangra bandshaveracist, anti-
They expressed their imperialist political position through music.
What they said about SanjaySharma\'s radical Germany-
The center of Asian ideas. (8)
Multiple messages and styles of posts
Bhangra music is pulling us off-
Assess our stereotype of British Asians-
Let\'s see what it means to be British.
Just like the musicians here are constantly expanding the cultural expression of China.
After mixing style inBhangra
Sharma Bhangra explains that it is the fusion nature of this music that enables it to exert its creativity and allows for consistency in the discourse of knowledge: In the ethnography of Yunnan\'s diverse music scene presented here, these
Every area of discussion is a creative boundary.
Show off where to generate possibilities.
During this time, there are several good CD shops in Kunming with music and dance scenes in Yunnan, and all kinds of music styles are easy to buy.
Most of the music venues are small, separate. Own or family-
Cafe and Bar. (10)
There are several rock bands on an informal tour of these cafes.
Later, in my field trip, it was in the cafe that Kunming developed rapidly --
Found the hop scene (
Those who run bars are often committed to music and are happy to encourage young customers to be creative and oppressive when they enjoy it.
In contrast, the disco is often not broad and human.
Many discotheques are owned by companies in other parts of China and are associated with money-
That is to say, they are usually dazzling, drinks are very expensive, and they are often frequented places to escort girls and people involved in organized crime. (11)
Usually, those who live the music scene do not like the Dance Place, and disco lovers sometimes go to the cafe to find friends and eat and drink (
Watch and be seen with foreigners)
It is unlikely that they will work closely with rock singers or attend live performances.
All the music scenes in Yunnan can be understood as the aid of negotiation, and they are afraid of the future (
Due to the collapse of \"units \"(
Work Unit system)
And the current wave of mass consumerism)
May be forgotten and enjoyed.
The scenes explored below clearly contain elements of rebellion and strange sparks of anarchy, just as attitudes and ways consistent with the national vision of contemporary China can flash in them.
Since they are the venue for negotiation and debate, it is not surprising that the suchapparent contradiction.
Although there are many things in common with the province\'s musical and cultural styles ---
For individuals, it is not uncommon to move between musical styles ---
For some, the gap between these schools is huge and far-reaching.
In Yunnan, especially Kunming, there are many stores selling a wide variety of cd, VCDs and later DVDs from all over the world.
As an example of how young people in Kunming can navigate these complex and overlapping music trends, here is an example from ust 2003 and 20-year-
Old music clerk
It shows the depth of knowledge of music and the global positioning of this knowledge among many young Chinese.
In his view, the store is the most famous CD store in Kunming and the main place for bosses to buy music for the city\'s bars and cafes.
He explained that when I asked him if he would go to a rock concert in Kunming, he replied that the Chinese like to behave modestly and that he doesn\'t have time to go anyway.
He and his friends like \"soft\" music.
The young music expert was careful to stress that he did not judge what others had heard.
He told me his reaction to me asking me for a rock show. -
He clearly felt it was inappropriate for him, which meant that the mainstream or soft rock listeners still did not accept the behavior.
Rock musicians in Yunnan were inspired by the Post-90 s vibrant Beijing punk music, especially after several punk bands visited Kunming in the summer of 1999. (12)
The rock singers in Kunming also respect the long-established stable world of Chinese rock and roll and have established many connections with it, especially the respected elders, such as the true godfather of Chinese rock and roll, Cullen Dou Wei and the bands such as black treasure and Tang Chao.
Han\'s influence on Chinese rock and roll although sometimes there is a bloody conflict between different ethnic groups in Yunnan, the national relationship in the province is more a place for pragmatic reconciliation.
Contemporary Music Performance creates a space for playing with race ---
Sometimes it is ignored and sometimes highlighted.
In addition, the dynamics between race and local identity are constantly being articulated and re-established
Participate in these music scenes.
Musicians from Yunnan have developed their own unique Yunnan music by integrating into the local non-music culture. Han sounds [ethnicity]
The use of Yunnan dialects (yunnan hua)[local identity].
The rock band in Kunming is not all Han nationality;
For example, there is a Wagroup for all.
Therefore, the use of non
Hanyin should not be interpreted as an imitation of these sounds purely for profit-seeking business reasons. -
Instead, their merger is on-
Reconciliation between the people of Yunnan.
Music is an inherent part of the cultural mobility of life in this border area, and as explained by gierschexplins, groups have been inclusive since the Qing Dynasty expanded more than 200 years ago. (13)
Perhaps the most famous star
Korean is a very popular singer in June. (14)
His most famous \"minority\" voice is Huidao Lhasa (Return toLhasa)
With its lingering Tibetan influence and Hui nationality (Cinderella)
Which one has Wear (Tai)
Gourd flute melody.
Dai and Tibetan have close ties with Yunnan and Dai.
By using these sounds, Zheng quoted noble, if essentialist, non-Han peoples.
In Huidao Lhasa, Buddhist bells and high-pitched, rough but lyrical female voices are used to express ideas of purity and power associated with the Tibetan people.
In return to the Valley Niang, the use of Dai music evokes memories of romantic, seductive and exotic Dai homes and beautiful women living in the suburbs
Tropical southern Yunnan. (15)
Zheng did not directly mention the Dai people in his songs in June;
Instead, he used their musical style to compare the beauty of the girl described in his lyrics.
There is no doubt that he manipulated the notion that the essentialist preconceptions of China\'s \"ethnic minorities\" are preconceived.
National Literature represents China\'s progress as a diverse and multi-ethnic nation and as a group of brothers.
Nevertheless, many Chinese in cities
Think of yourself as a person of elders)
Still Associated non
Backward, illiterate and disorderly Han nationality.
In order to solve this problem, the official media usually emphasize the purity and importance of the agricultural lifestyle, as well as the non-
The way it exists. (16)
In Yunnan and throughout China, diversity is presented by the state as a force to unite the people, anawe-
Different inspiring bonds to be proud. (17)
Rock musicians use these officially recognized images of the purity of \"ethnic minorities\" to question other government policies, particularly the influence of free markets and their accompanying consumerism, and they worry about the loss of Chinese unique traditions. (18)
Not only did the Han band joinHan sounds.
A detailed study by AsBaranovitch shows that many rock and roll members in Beijing come from non-Han nationality background(19)
What is particularly interesting here is Lo\'s work, A Yi musician who used the name Lo in the performance of the derogatory term luoluo (
\"Uncivilized person\" or \"barbarian \")
He used to classify his people.
He merged many
Han is very interested in his music.
However, he is also careful not to use a female image when promoting his work.
He explained that it would be too close to the look of pornography and femininity
Luo lived in a Dai Monastery in Xishuangbanna for a few years and was greatly influenced by the knowledge of the little riding Buddhism he acquired there.
He used the image of Dai Buddhism worship in one of the videos, improving the image of the post-
In the era of reform and opening up, China opposes the Communist Party\'s doubts about religion. The Rebel?
There is some debate about the degree of rebellion of Chinese rock and roll.
Incorporating the \"minority\" element into rock music is a good example of the inherent complexity and contradictions of the problem.
For example, in June, Zheng integrated the recognized voice of Tibet, known as the \"appropriation\" of the national theme, \"coordinating with the government\'s efforts to dilute ethnic conflicts by celebrating National exoticism \". (20)
However, it is not surprising that rock music and lyrics, as texts, can accept multiple readings and explanations.
The song can be understood as a radical critique of the contradictions between consumerism and market-driven economies, as well as a push for a unified but diverse multi-ethnic Chinese national policy.
Again, the same text can be recycled as an expression of local pride and understood as non-
The way Han people exist.
Therefore, by exploring the reasons and intentions behind the integration of minority voices, we can explore some of the issues that are generally raised in Chinese studies, including youth rebellion, macho-machanism, localism and nationalist factionalism
It can be seen that another area of this contradiction is the state\'s attempt to control the use of illegal drugs in Yunnan.
During my field trip, a grand rock and roll event was held at the main stadium in Kunming, where all artists, including Yanjing society, were present (Cobra), (21)
Tang Chao Xibao, Lingdian (Zero)
Zheng and Li Jie, June (
He mysteriously described the show as \"the first musician in China to tend to post-modern \")
Play to the audience.
The slogan \"cherish life and resist drugs\" was published in the campaign literature (
\"Cherish Shengming, Grand Mercure duping\").
Drugs have affected the lives of many musicians.
For example, it is well known that the members of Tang Chao have overcome the drug problem and their credibility has been used to overcome the strong counter
Thousands of young people attending the conference received information on drugs. (22)
This is particularly relevant to the Kunming authorities, who must deal with drugs flowing into China from Southeast Asia.
The show itself is quite easy to control, and it\'s frustrating to dance and even stand.
That said, it was very exciting and the fans were very excited. (23)
We have seen that the Chinese government\'s policies and strong opposition in respect of diversity
Rock musicians are promoting drug messages.
However, the key rock lyrics oranti-
The mainstream rock lifestyle seems that their lifestyle and philosophy sometimes resonate with government policy, especially in the passionate nationalism that pervades many of their songs (
Although sometimes it\'s ironic).
This was also proposed by deklow when discussing the Chinese hard rock band.
He took Guo yikuo, a guitarist who interviewed Tang Chao, as an example.
\"We are not rebellious at all. we are actually supporting the current government.
We can exist because of the open policy.
China is a huge country and needs strong leadership. (24)
Guo Keze believes that Tang Chao\'s music has contributed to the discovery of Chinese culture and demonstrated the uniqueness of China, which is a patriotic position to adhere to the government\'s line.
However, \"the power of music, the ancient and mysterious lyrics
Like the charm of singer Ding Wu, modern cultural criticism-
All these factors have created a world of music, challenging the status quo of China\'s economic progress and rapid modernization.
The music of the Tang dynasty formed a contradictory space, which not only challenges but also adapts to the current political reality. (25)
Many scholars have pointed out that the tone and feeling of rock music are determined by commercial factors, and ideological factors. (26)
As Efird wrote, \"Western news overstates China\'s rock underground, dissidents ignore economic factors that have taken the space occupied by musicians from mere\'crack
In addition, they ignored the way the state curbed and restricted Yao Kun (
China Rock Scene)
For example, by setting the price of the tape, thus limiting the profit earned by musicians from the recording, it may not appear outside, but through the market. \" (27)
Therefore, in explaining the meaning of multi-meaning and change of Chinese dance culture, we should not only remember the strength of these texts in recognition (
As discussed below, Tang Chao advocates Chinese and \"cloud \")
Moreover, the parties involved in the negotiations must consult creatively on economic, social and political obstacles.
As mentioned earlier, the musicians in Yunnan will
The Han population is not only a tool to question rapid social change, but also a tool to express affinity with these peoples, but also a way to produce a distinct Yunnan voice.
As musicians from the North put Chinese instruments like bamboo flute (dizi)and zither (guzheng)
Among their music, some Yunnan bands produced a recognized Chinese music with the voice of the local people, surpassing and showing off ethnic divisions to promote local identity.
Just as many Northern Rock singers balance the use of \"Western\" instruments and rock styles when looking for authenticity, many Yunnan musicians play local music under the call of the center and Beijing, to produce an acceptable real voice. (28)
A band called the seventh day.
Dai tunesin was used in a number called \"Po water (Splash Water).
All members of the band are registered Han nationality.
They will not
Hansheng is an appeal for an inclusive and diverse identity of Yunnan, not a colonial possession.
There are many non-bands.
Non-hanyou run and own hanyou and game venuesHan.
They also traveled extensively in Yunnan to Africa.
Han or mixed audience.
Banovic described such travel and Beijing musicians and non-
Han nationality as empowerment
The hierarchy of cultural exchanges. (29)
This song compliments the charm of Xishuangbanna and reviews the beauty of the Dai people and the joy of their New Year\'s \"Water Splashing Festival. (30)
The lyrics translated below express the romantic views usually held by the quiet and mysterious daily newspaper (
Also mentioned the work of Zheng in June and Luo or above).
On the seventh day, the band learned from Xishuangbanna\'s romantic point of view and questioned the daily reality of the post-era.
Reform eraKunming and express the affinity of the band with non-band
Han nationality in the province.
It is the diversity of these peoples that gives Yunnan a unique personality within the People\'s Republic.
What the local band does not recognize
Han nationality\'s musical style is not just a diversion or example of what is called \"internal Orientalism\" in literature. (31)
This is also an attempt to produce a Yunnan voice different from Beijing rock and roll, which is appreciated by both Korea and Africa.
The Han audience is the same.
Yunnan rock musicians of the period ,(
But not everyone is young)
And those who are interested in the scene (
Men and women are mostly in their early 20 s and 30 s)
70 s combination of Chinese style elements (
\"Mao hat\", Military bag, etc. )
There are \"minority\" jewelry and clothes and even tattoos in some cases. (32)
As mentioned above, the musicians and their fans are mixed.
Band members often sing in kunminghua or other local dialects and spend a lot of time outside the city playing performances in non-
Han nationality areas such as Xishuangbanna, Lijiang and Dali.
They made the voice of Yunnan when they experienced and created the rocks in Yunnan. n-roll lifestyle.
This way of life is often difficult.
Many musicians are out of work, or have to endure long hours of work at the demands of the band\'s life, and often rely on the kindness of friends and family to get food and cash.
These views are often expressed in their lyrics;
In the end, we will leave the purple sky and other lines express the instability of their daily life and their hope for the future. (33)
Friends in Kunming are saddened by the demise of the city\'s rock scene they see.
However, I agree with Dirk Lovett that rock is not just a fad in China. (34)
The music-based changes that young people in Yunnan like are not surprising.
More mixed sounds, such as the \"numetal\" sound, are replacing the less fashionable soft metals and heavy metals that became popular in the 1990 s.
Since 2000, many old musicians in Kunming have given up playing the band or moved to the north. (35)
As Kunming is \"developed\" again, more often-frequented places on rock sites have been closed and even removed.
Other venues have become mainstream or diverse performing bands.
However, even in small towns in Yunnan, new forms of live music have become popular.
The fast-growing infrastructure of the region, as well as more new technologies and the ability to download music, means that new sounds and trends are spreading faster and faster across the province.
Changing trends: from rock and punk to Yunnan\'s \"Nu\" music and dance culture provide a venue for identity negotiation and expression, generation and rejection.
These are complex interweaving identities such as nation, youth, region, rebellion and creative art.
When I took part in the live cert held in August 2003 to promote the opening of the new CD store in the old town of Dali, I really understood that.
The show was held on a specially built stage on the sidewalk outside the store.
The eleven bands that played that night attracted hundreds of people.
An uncoordinated collection
Excited teenagers, tourists from northern China, confused local farmers and some foreign backpackers throwing stones.
The concert lasted for several hours, and the crowd from the sidewalk spilled onto the road.
Most bands play hip-
Hop affects \"numetal\", which has a very different style than old Kunming\'s by slapping, rap lyrics and tapping the guitar
Based on the above bandwidth.
\"Nu metal\" is the most popular
In recent years, the Fusion music style has become more and more popular in the world.
The great interest in new music and its potential for expression are reflected in the fact that all the bands playing that night came from small areas near the lower pass (DaliNew Town).
Therefore, they are not from the old town of Dali, which is popular with foreign tourists.
Their contact with nu
Metals can be understood as expressing their own global positioning, not necessarily through non-
Chinese people in the area.
One of the most popular bands is five.
The band of Piecegroup evolution (Jinhua yuedui).
Like many \"nu metal\" bands, the band performs in exquisite costumes.
They are dressed in black denim, and the white and black makeup is very eye-catching.
Perhaps not surprisingly, when they all say that their favorite artist is Marilyn Manson, but insist that their style and sound are not just derivative, but unique.
In fact, the name of the band \"evolution\" means the potential for adaptation and change on a global scale.
Through their name, the band clearly expresses the potential for dialogue and change in the context of global cultural production and consumption.
The music style and style of the band are influenced by American pop music. hop.
Hops are growing rapidly across China.
It is said that the first rap group in China was the machine set up in 1998.
Interestingly, the band is represented by the Beijing punk record company \"Scream Records\", whose debut album is the punk compilation album \"ulio jundui\"
Boring team). (36)
The first album of Chinese hip hop in the summer of 2003 --
A street dance competition was held in Suzhou on May 2004.
At the same time in Shanghai, as Andrew field discussed (this issue)
New clubs such as Windows I and II cater to the Chinese and international crowd (
And play only hip-hop.
Trend of change: Hip-
In Yunnan, in the Rock Cafe and Bar in Kunming, a new hip-hop music appeared. hop scene.
This includes performances, hip-
Dance parties, rap and street dance.
In small cities in China
Hop is still an underground sport, with most participants (
Either still in school or out of work or in low-income jobs.
In Kunming, there are about 500 boys and girls in hip-
What happened in 2003.
From the point of view of their dress and manners, this is a globally recognized fashion
As fans of music, they can be recognized immediately.
One of the city\'s leading rock musicians made one of Kunming\'s more mature hip-hop musichop acts,Gumbo. Hip-
Jumping is a global phenomenon.
Although it is emerging from inland cities in the United States, especially New York and Los Angeles
From Japan to Greenland and Palestine, there are now jumping types everywhere. Hip-
Hop is a combination of musicians, performers, and fans \"localized\" to produce new, dynamic local sounds and styles. (37)
On the issue of globalization, authenticity and racial politics, it is important that all three members of Gumbo tell me, eminem\'s debut in Hansen\'s 2002 film \"milestone\" has seriously affected their decision to start being fashionable. hop band. (38)
While rap tape and cd have been in Kunming for a while, it is a strong visual image of the film, providing the ultimate inspiration for forming this group.
Like the lyrics of many Yunnan rock bands, the lyrics of young rappers (
Mainly among them. to late-teens)
Often show concern about the transformation of post-society to commercialism and consumerism
China in the era of reform
In the rap of the Hong Kong-based band LMF, a similar aversion was expressed to rampantmaterialism, which represented \"Lazymuthafucka\", the name in contemporary
In this article, I think music and dance culture provide a place for identity negotiation.
LMF\'s chief rapper, MCYan, made this clear, claiming in an interview with the South China Morning Post that \"through hip-
We try to find out who we are and what we are.
That\'s what black Americans do. \" (39)
Belief in hips
Hop and its potential in exploring identity negotiation, as well as the possibility of using it to engage in current continental social and policy issues, are essential components of the Gumbo lyrics.
For example, they discussed their vague sense of the current education system, the importance of access to education and the shortcomings of current institutions and faculty and staff.
Other lyrics reflect the changing and ambiguous gender roles of contemporary China and mention the image of Chinese women overseas.
The band is concerned about recent social changes.
For example, China\'s rapidly growing wealth gap is believed to be the lyrics of inGumbo that have led to an increase in interpersonal violence among young Chinese.
The following excerpt from Gumbo raps is a good example: Hip-hop is a multi-
A billion-dollar global industry, some of which usually beautify the glittering Super
The consumer lifestyle of platinum jewelry, designer clothing and lots of diamonds. (40)
However, Gumbo\'s concerns with hip-
Hopculture of optimism and idealism is said to be the hopculture of \"keeping true\" and challenging the global consumer culture.
It also depends on how these young idealists react to the increasing popularity of hip-hop offered by marketpotential. hop in China.
Like the rock musicians discussed above, let\'s say that Chinese hip-hop music is too simple.
Jumping culture is rebellious.
Many of the pathos expressed in the rap lyrics are in the party line;
They tend to be socialist and emphasize the need for social justice, equality and good education.
Change Trend: So far, the disco in Yunnan is mainly in the form of live music.
In the last section, the complexity of gender subjectivity in the club scene is discussed.
I also explored the way music producers do their music creation (
That is, dj and emcees to a lesser extent)
Playing their role not only provides space for contact with China\'s new consumer reality, but also for the recycling or domestication of these spaces.
Like the rock scenes discussed above, these spaces feature local features.
The DJs achieve this by showing cool and fashion (i. e.
Learn about Guangdong trends and foreign dance shows)
At the same time, adjust the music they play and adjust their language and behavior to a certain extent to serve their respected audience.
Discotheques used to be and are now popular in cities in Yunnan, although the busiest and most fashionable discotheques can be found in Kunming.
Although dance clubs are open and closed at an amazing pace in the city, there were about 30 in August 2003, nearly half of them in the trendy Kundu area.
Almost all DJs in these clubs use CDs instead of vinyl recordings favored by their British counterparts.
Most of the music played in the disco in Kunming is dance and electronic, with strange stray garage tunes or hip hop music
Dance the national anthem, such as the legendary house that wants to jump in pain.
The DJs in Kunming were largely influenced by music trends in English-speaking areas and Beijing.
In fact, many of the DJs I \'ve come across who work in big clubs are either from a Cantonese accent or influenced by it.
At least one of the largest companies operating disco clubs in Kunming and other towns in Yunnan is located in Guangzhou.
DJs, emcees and dancers working for the company and similar companies are expected to work overtime on the boss\'s whim to move from club to club.
This will include moving to another city in Yunnan, such as Jinghong or Xiaguan, to stay at a shared budget motel for a few months at a time.
However, when company members and living together, it does give the company a working atmosphere that is very close, Almost Family, reminiscent of the Chinese cultural performance groups of the past.
The DJs take their work very seriously, and although they are often tired, they seem to like their craft and most of the music they play.
Usually emcees will interact with the crowd and show simple dance movements with a smile.
From time to time, they will also yell at their microphones such encouraging spells as \"Yao head, Yao head (
\"Shake your head, shake your head \").
There is no doubt that this is a reference to ecstasy, which is called \"Ecstasy \"(yaotouwan)in Chinese.
During my time in this field, the use of drugs has changed a lot.
When I arrived here in the early 1997 s, the person who went to the disco had a bottle of cough medicine to refresh himself.
However, like Shanghai and many other Chinese cities, 2005 of ecstasy and other drugs are readily available. (41)
Emcees is also responsible for distributing small gifts and promotional items to dancers, throwing them high in the air for excited dancers to capture.
In my experience, emcees--who (unlike the DJs)
Most of them are women, very fashionable (
I only know one DJ play set during my stay in Kunming)--
Less confident than the DJs.
There is an obvious level between Dj and emcees, often the unfortunate recipient of dj spitting.
The DJs are very familiar with China and the world\'s dance music field. they not only think that they are integrated into it, but also contribute to it in a very Chinese way.
Unlike the Shanghai International club scene described in this issue in the field, most DJs in Yunnan mainly play Chinese dance mixes and puttogether sets, which will delight the Chinese audience.
This sometimes limits the dj.
For example, they know very well that even though they themselves like jungle tracks very much, it won\'t play well for Chinese audiences, especially early in the evening.
Djswill specially designed the set for their local disco and the night they played.
It is acknowledged that they can play more experimental or alternative music in Kunming late at night than in more popular provincial venues for mainstream dance tracks.
While several DJs don\'t like to perform at provincial venues, they have no choice once they are assigned the avenue.
This contrasts with the experience of any show I \'ve seen in Kunming as exciting and innovative as the Dali rage metal gigabit.
Dance venues in Yunnan, including provincial cities such as Simao, Xiaguan, Jinghong and even men sea, are usually equipped with mirror tiles, expensive lighting equipment and complex sound systems.
The attitude of the disco changes myfieldwork.
1997 students and respected young people (Especially girls)would not go.
However, by 2003, most young people in Kunming occasionally go to the disco, where there is a hardcore that goes every night. (42)
Some of them are escort girls, others are young unemployed women, looking for wealthy older men to entertain them, and some are super fashion that is only interested in music and club atmosphere.
Most clubs, especially the less fashionable ones, also attract businessmen who are still in suits, who rarely dance, but will call female dancers, play cards and play games, and hold informal meetings.
There are gender differences in the club.
In Kunming and small cities, clubs often have men in their forties, but I rarely see women in their thirties in such places.
Even in relatively small towns, Discotheques are becoming increasingly popular with young women, although, as point out by Perkins in this issue, the rural ballroom still has male-dominated customers.
However, this is not a static situation, as Farrer discussed on this issue, new ways for women are being formed even in the natural environment.
At present, Yunnan officials are worried that a large number of rural women working and studying alone in the city leave behind rural men who find it increasingly difficult to find their spouses.
It is said to have caused tension and riots (eveninter-Ethnic Conflict)
People\'s grievances are blamed on different groups of people.
More dance halls have been opened in rural areas to try to provide places for these people to find partners;
This inevitably leads to police and local governments turning a blind eye to the growing prostitution in some rural areas.
In high unemployment areas like Jinghong, the club not only offers a welcome attention away from everyday difficulties, but also offers real possibilities to meet with people who can provide work.
Better yet, as some young women have told me, they can find someone to spend money on them, in return, \"just for the company \".
In the early days of my work, the dance style displayed by the local disco was very different from that of Kunming.
There are similar differences in dress style: it is common to see girls wearing a wind gauze cage or Ahka black embroidered dress, not to mention the strange little Buddhist monk in a saffron robe disappeared from the local temple.
None of these can be found in the disco in Kunming.
Some of these girls may be prostitutes and want to attract merchants looking for exotic ones. (43)
As Perkins pointed out in this issue, the line between waitress, escort and prostitute has never been clear --cut.
In these clubs, however, many prostitutes and accompanying girls do not wear clothes.
This could be complicated, super.
The modern and gorgeous atmosphere of these clubs is in conflict with purity and antiquity
Old-fashioned appeal by Daidress.
The dance scenes in Yunnan are complex,
It is usually associated with glitz and consumption.
After the 90 s it is considered dangerous, although now the reputation has basically disappeared, and it is increasingly linked to money and economic progress, as the DJ uses light Donghua. Cantonese).
This tendency to Guangdong is an interesting continuation of the popularity of Hong Kong and Taiwan music, which has been attacked by those who clearly face Beijing\'s rock and roll people (
Even those who emphasize the importance of aYunnanese\'s voice). (44)
The mainstream demands of dance venues and the promotion of gorgeous fashion consumption can be understood as Farrer (this issue)
It is called the transformation of governance strategy \".
Hockx and Strauss explained that \"the Chinese state itself is in the process of transformation and expression of new sciences such as marketization and entrepreneur spirit \". (45)
Disco and other dazzling venues play an important role in encouraging consumption, which is crucial to promoting new marketization.
Throughout China, hop that occasionally plays in mainstream dance seems to be growing rapidly. Hip-
Although the Oktoberfest was associated with Beijing\'s punk brand in the early days, it did not pay much attention to Beijing.
Even Gumbo focused on Kunming, adding European to their lyrics.
It seems to form a cross gene that blends elements of the rock and disco world, gaining the appeal of consumers while maintaining some artistic credibility.
Disco is closely related to the pop imagination of art or creativity, in this field, the DJ carved a space for himself with considerable artistic value, showing their skills, and explore the influence with external culture.
Gender is also negotiated in disco style.
Although older women are rarely seen even in city discotheques, young women shape a place for themselves in this previously male-dominated nightlife setting.
In the younger generation, more and more women are presented equally among revelers, and although there is still a long way to go, young women are getting dj training.
In addition, the role of the female host is not to realize the male fantasy, but to send out a vibrant youth by integrating into music and engaging with male and female dancers.
Also, we can\'t underestimate escorting themselves on-
The ongoing process of identity assertion and conversion.
From the conclusion of ethnography shown here, it can be clearly seen that young people in Yunnan
The scene based on music is far more than the product of passive Westernization. Talking of hip-
Jump and its many British costumes and stay away from trendy colonial viewshop as a US-
Hesmondhalgh and Melville believe that it should be understood as \"one of the elements that can be reorganized to make important statements about cultural identity \". (46)
As a tool, music and dance expressions can transform and regenerate in an adventurous way, thus expressing complex changes.
Music is used to express concerns about consumerism.
Rock, punk and hip hophop)
, Andas a place for negotiation of national identity and accommodation (
Rock and dance venues).
In addition, there is a work of a gender subject in these music and dances (especiallyhip-hop and disco).
In Yunnan, the dance tunes that get the most action in the club are those that incorporate Chinese elements, such as the theme song of the Huang Feihong film.
In addition, rock singers sing about non with reverence
Han and Chinese dynasties in the past, and even rappers called for a critical assessment of the masses
Yunnan has a special significance for Chinese music scenes.
In fact, Kunming may be the second stone in China. n-
Of course, it is the rolling city after Beijing.
As a wild frontier, Yunnan\'s lingering reputation in the imagination of the Chinese has attracted some elements.
However, Yunnan and Africa
Han people are also looking for a lost and pure China without commercialism and corruption.
Music provides a place to explore these contradictions, as well as a place to forge and manipulate new identities.
With the transformation of China, Yunnan has also experienced some difficulties with rapid changes: rising rural unemployment, the closure of the dan tail system, the disintegration of the social safety net in the 1950 s, and so on.
In this case, music is a place to explore and negotiate where new understanding can be established and expressed (
But change and contradiction)ways.
Instead of assuming a merger of all non-companies
Chinese elements are just new forms of expression
The criteria for colonial/Westernizing or declining authenticity, and more useful is to tap their potential and create a new generation of new meanings and new ways of life.
As Johnson said, \"some cross-sites
Cultural possession provides a fertile ground for forming a new self and understanding of others \". (47)
Many scholars have called for recognition of the potential of hybrid cars, the dangers of a relationship that does not recognize meaning, and the impact of forced foreclosure. (48)
This is not the reality of ignoring the control of corporate culture production.
As appeasement and passive consumption)
Instead, we recognize the imagination, creativity and potential of expression in artistic interaction.
As Hockx and Strausshave point out, \"cultural producers and consumers in contemporary China are a dynamic and innovative group that creatively use new materials and seize market and cultural opportunities, the tradition is usually in an unusual and innovative way. \" (49)
Yunnan is no exception.
In the process of understanding the vivid and lively music scenes in Yunnan, we must realize that these scenes are full of creativity and vision. (50)
China and Europe
The American way of life is questioned.
The symbol marks of rebellion are being cleverly used, but new ways for Chinese, Asians and global citizens are also being established. (51)
Far more than just means passive acceptance of uro-
They demonstrate creativity, dialogue, and questioning the possibilities of the future. (1)
Homi Baba, where culture is located (
London: Routledge, 1994). (2)
Sanjay Sharma, \"Is it noisy Asians or \'Asians \'? \", in Dis-
Rhythm orientation: Politics of dance music in naivassia.
Sanjay Sharma, John Hulick and Ashwani Sharma (
London: Zed Books, 1996), pp. 32-57. (3)
Desi/post Bhangra has become one of the most influential music styles in the UK. (4)
Jeroen de Kloet, pop music and youth in Chinese cities: the generation of Daco, culture of contemporary China.
China Quarterly Special Issue
Michelle Hawkes and Julian Strauss6 (2005): 87-104 (
Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press). (5)
At present, Kunming has a population of nearly 4 million. (6)
A lot of soft music was played on radio and television and was very popular.
In 1997, the melody of Ritchie Jen\'s international hit song, new too ruan, seems to come from every store in Kunming.
Apart from the works of some cross-border artists, such as Wang Fei and Zheng in June, pop music is not played much in cafes and discotheques, which is the focus of this article.
However, it is important that scenes of rock, pop and dance do not form a different world.
Their creative expressions are varied.
See Jeroen deKloet, \"Let him fucking see the green smoke under my groin: The theme of Chinese rock\", in post-modern and Chinese, ed.
ArifDirlik, Zhang Xintong (
Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2000), p. 245.
Mainland pop lovers listen to Cantopop, the cantesongs produced mainly in Hong Kong and the Mandapop produced in Taiwan (
Together known as Hong Kong and Taiwan, Hong Kong and Taiwan Mandarin gang, Taiwan)
Popular music from the mainland, known as \"the same music Yue\", a wide range of Western music.
See Robert Eiffel, rock a tough place: music and markets in Post-90 s Beijing, Chinese cities: Ethnography of contemporary culture, ed. Nancy N. Chen etal. (
Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2001), pp. 71 and 85.
Until the era of reform, tonsu music was produced and controlled by the state.
Gradually, the song and dance troupe (gewutuan)
Record companies and TV studios that make this type of music are no longer so dependent on state subsidies.
The new popular mainstream music style called \"northwest wind\" by 1988 (xibeifeng)
Began to compete with imports from Hong Kong and Taiwan.
Jones described the northwest wind as \"The combination of Chinese folk music and disco with the lyrical meditation of Chinese traditional culture and the dilemma brought about by the new era of China\'s rapid modernization \".
See Andrew Jones, \"politics of post-pop music
In modern Chinese people\'s protest and political culture (2nd ed. ), ed.
Elizabeth Perry and Jeffrey vasstrom (
Boulder company: Westview Press, 1992), pp. 148-65. (7)
Bhangra is a dance style that originated in Punjab and performs in celebration of harvest, weddings, etc.
Since 1990sin UK, Bhangra \"has shown an interest in adaptation and fusion of other styles \".
See Rupa Huq, \"Asian Kool?
Got to jump and surpass \"Dis
Directional rhythm, p. 62. Aspects of hip-
Jump, lac, travel-
Jumping, garage, drum \'n bassand Rigg are all included in Bhangra music.
In fact, this style has become so diverse and varied that some writers believe
Bhangra, and even the term has now been overtaken by more inclusive \"Desi\", which refers to music played by people of South Asian or South Asian descent/ancestry.
However, some Asian musicians complain that their skin color makes music reporters think they will definitely like Bhangra, and some British bands prefer British music. pop (
Enter the final)or punk (VoodooQueens)
Their complaints are not surprising. (8)
Sharma: \"Asian noise or Asian noise? \",pp. 32-57. (9)Ibid. , p. 55. (10)
These bars have a lot in common with the Shanghai rock bar that Farrer discussed in this issue. (11)
In 1984, China began to open the dance hall again.
They proved very popular.
Also, the dance survived and flourished even after the cracks
\"Decadent Western culture\" in winter of 1987 \".
See Orville Schell, disco and democracy: the throes of China\'s reform (
New York: Pantheon Books, 1988), p. 352.
ByNovember 1987, Guangdong has reported 500 dance halls (ibid. , p. 353)and by the mid-
In Beijing, 1990 \"large discotheques\" were even found using imported technology.
See Efird, \"where the rock is hard,\" p. 67.
For a detailed social history of Shanghai dance performances, see James Farrer, opening up: youth culture and market form in Shanghai (
Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2002). (12)
Punk is popular in China, and 1998 is reported to be the year of punk \".
It was this year that the \"Scream\" of Beijing\'s punk bar opened with the words \"There is no entrance to metal and old rock singers \"().
Ironically, the gangsters who came to Kunming were also invited by these \"old rock.
Beijing\'s gangsters are now well-known all over the world, even on the cover of The Economist in June. July 2001. (13)Charles P.
Giersch in the Asian frontier
Transformation of Yunnan frontier in Qing Dynasty (
Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 2006). (14)See also interview withZheng June China Daily December 29. 2003. (15)
For a detailed discussion on beauty, power and Dai people, see Anouska Komlosy, image of Dai: gender and identity aesthetics in Xishuangbanna, unpublished doctoral thesis
University of Andrew, 2002;
And Anouska Komlosy, \"the \'femin\', the recognition and the universe of Xishuangbanna,\" where there is a China-
Compare ethnic minority politics in China.
Linda neidsky and Joseph Xie
Li Hei, come right away. (16)
Although China has officially recognized 55 distinct \"ethnic minorities\", the Communist Party of China started working with ofsurveying 1949 of the Chinese people after the revolution, more than 400 groups came forward, more than 200 of Yunnan. Non-
The Han population accounts for only 5 of China\'s total population. (17)
For other work on \"ethnic minorities\" in China, such as Dru Gladney, \"Ethnic groups representing China: reshaping majority/ethnic minorities\", Journal of Asian Studies 53 (1994): 92-123;
Ed Stefan Harrell
Cultural encounters on China\'s national border
Washington, DC: Washington University Press, 1995);
Lin ashi Xiong and Yang Guangyuan (eds. )
Ethnic and cultural trends across national borders in the South
Western China and the Southeast Asian continent: Relations, society and language
Chiang Mai: Ming Muan printing factory, 2000);
China and its ethnic minorities: autonomy or assimilation (
New York and London: East Gate, 1989);
Catherine cowp, the creator of Chinese Zhuang politics (
Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press, 2000);
Ralph Litzinger, \"gender issue: Post-
32 issues of the Journal of Asian scholars4 (2000):3-14;
Chinese minority culture: recognition and integration since 1912New York: St.
Martins Press (1996);
Mary lark, \"Image of ethnic minorities, memories of robbers: negotiating local identity in the Western low-lying areas of Hunan\", unpublished doctoral thesis by the University of Edinburgh, 1999;
Mary lark, ethnic differences, local significance: the negotiation of Chinese cultural identity (
London: Pluto Publishing House, 2005);
Minority Rules: The Cultural Politics of Miao and Chinese women
Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2000);
Gao Yun, \"Dai houses in southern China: traditional and cultural development in minority buildings\", unpublished doctoral thesis from the University of Edinburgh, 1998.
About Chinese identity, Liu Tao and Fu Lei (eds. )
Unity and Diversity: Chinese local culture and identity (
Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong Press, 1996);
Frank piyer Hein Marley (eds. )
Domestic and International Migration: China\'s point of view (
Surrey, UK: Curzon Press, 1999);
Helen Xiao, cultural identity and differential politics in southern China, daedaros, Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1223 (1993): 19-43. (18)
New Voice of China54-107. (19)
Perhaps the most famous
Tengger, Mongolia is a musician of Han nationality.
His work expresses a different voice, but also shows the possibility of dialogue and even integration.
See the new voice of China Baranovitch. 106-7. (20)
\"Rock in a hard place,\" p. 80. (21)
Yanjing News (the Cobra band)
The first female rock band in China.
They were founded in the spring of 1989. (22)
Let him see, p. 255;
\"Looking for beautiful dreams;
Chinese rock, OIDEION: online Performing Arts on the International Space Station. 2 (Sept. 1998)at . (23)
At Cui Jian\'s concert in Kunming25 Dec. 1999)
Although I was told that the next night\'s performance was accompanied by dance and was usually more wild, dancing and standing were not allowed in the small field. (24)
Let him see, p. 258;
\"Pursue the dream of beauty \"; Rock in China\". (25)Ibid. (26)
\"Politics of Post-pop music
2nd edition of Tiannanmen China, popular protests and political culture in modern China. , ed.
Elizabeth Perry and Jeffrey vasstrom (
Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1992), p. 161;
\"Let him see,\" p. 258;
\"Rock in a hard place,\" p. 83. (27)
\"Rock in a hard place,\" p. 70;
The new voice of China, balanovic215. (28)
De Kloet, \"pop music and youth in Chinese cities: Generation dakou of hocou and Strauss\", \"culture of contemporary China\"89. (29)
New Voice of China104. (30)
For a detailed discussion of the Dai Water Splashing Festival, please see Anouska Komlosy, \"Parade and water splashing festival: local and national performance during the Dai New Year in Xishuangbanna\", Journal of the Royal Institute of Anthropology No. 102 (2004): 351-73. (31)
For example, please see Gladney, \"representing Chinese nationality \";
Rules for ethnic minorities. (32)
It has been pointed out that wearing Tibetan jewelry by members of Tang Chao is only a business strategy.
SeeJones, politics of pop music161.
This is not the case with the Yunnan band.
They haven\'t made a record for sale yet, and not only during the concert, they will always wear such outfits.
Their style is a visual display of their commitment to rock music, accompanied by questioning the mainstream feelings of the Han nationality, and trying to produce a sound and style that complements but differs from the Beijing band. (33)
People have a lot of comments about this difficulty.
See Efird, \"Rock in a hard place \".
Starring Cui Jian and Dou Wei (
Cui Jian helped to write, part of the production)
Zhang Yuan\'s 1993 film, Zashin (
This tenacious work records the experiences of Beijing rock musicians in the early 90 th century.
For more Chinese anti-discourse including the film, see Tony Saqi, \"disco and dictatorship: Party-
\"China\'s national and social relations\", in the popular protest and political culture of modern China (2nd ed. ), pp. 246-67. (34)
De Kloet, \"pop music and youth in Chinese cities\", pp. 87-104. (35)
For non-detailed life history
Han musicians who came to Beijing to participate in the city\'s infamous rock and punk performances saw Baranovitch, the new voice of China. (36)
The Scream record was set up after the closure of Beijing\'s notorious scream punk bar.
In the beginning, they represented four Beijing punk bands who, together with their followers, formed the punk community in Beijing at the time, known as Jundui in Wuli Lake.
The bands were 69 people, mirrors, brain failures and anarchy.
Scream records are now diverse and represent many alternative bands, including hip-
Jump, whip ash and punk show (
Most importantly, all the female punk bands are hanging on the box, visual kei/Quasi
Silverash, gothic band). See and . (37)
Tony Mitchell, the other one. -Hip-
Introduction In Global Noise: Rap and hip hop
Jump outside the United States, ed. Tony Mitchell (
Wesleyan University Press, 2001), p. 12.
Another exploration of hip-Origin and poetry
Jump and see the prophet of Imani Perry, the hood. -
Fashionable politics and poetryhop (
Durham: Duke University Press, 2004). (38)Hip-
Hop emerged as a political commentary on the plight of American inland urban residents and a response to what is considered to be 1970 of the antique and over-commercial black music industry.
For interesting works, the eclectic and merging origins and cultural significance of hip-
Jumping, such as Cecil Brown, Stagolee shooting Billy (
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, master\'s and London, 2003);
Barry Glassner, \"Black: How to continue prejudice Without Really Trying\", in a culture of fear: Why Americans are afraid of the wrong things, ed.
Barry grasner (
New York: Basic Books 1999), pp. 107-27;
Marvin Gladney, black art movement and fashion
Jump \", African-American Review No. 292 (1995): 291-301;
Jump outside the United States, pp. 1-38.
See E for a detailed discussion on performance, race and cultural appropriation.
Patrick Johnson: Politics of Performance and authenticity
Durham and Duke University Press, London, 2003). (39)
Mitchell, \"the other root-Hip-
Jump outside the United States, \"p. 7. (40)
Clearly, there is a complex relationship between poverty, dazzling aspirations, gangs, drugs and violence.
This chaotic lifestyle itself can be understood as a resistance, a resistance against poverty, which is born to many people who desire this lifestyle.
It can be said that the creative recovery of consumer possibilities has certain features.
For the discussion of creative consumerism, seeRolf Linder, the construction of authenticity: a case of subculture, edits when positioning cultural creativity. John Liep(
London: Sterling Virginia Bruto Press, 2001), pp. 81-9.
Take Burberry as an example-
May be one of the most unique global brands and become very popular among garage party lovers in inner UK
Recently, cities have subverted the image of carefully cultivated brand nobility. (41)
See Farrer and Field for this issue. (42)Ibid. (43)
As we all know, prostitutes in Xishuangbanna often wear Dai-style clothes, but few of them are of Dai origin.
These girls usually exercise in hair salons and massage parlors. Sandra T.
Hyde, sexual tourism practice on the edge: erosion of race and pathology on the Lancang River, Chinese city: Ethnography of contemporary Chinese culture, editor. Nancy Chen, op. cit. , pp. 146-62. (44)See footnote 6. (45)
See the introduction of the editors of Hockx and Strauss \";
\"Market mentality, iron satellite antenna and controversial cultural capitalism\", No. 7, China province1(2002): 57-72. (46)
Mitchell, \"the other root-Hip-
Jump outside the United States, \"p. 11;
David hemondal and Casper Melville, \"City breakfast culture: the impact of hip hop culture
\"Jump in the UK\" in global noise \". Rap and hip-
US Customs outside the balance sheet.
Tony Mitchell. cit. , p. 97. (47)
Johnson, the proper darkness6. (48)
For example, see, among other things, the location of the culture Bhabha;
Judith Butler, gender issues: Feminism and subversion
New York and London: Rutledge, 1990);
Judith Butler\'s \"excited speech: Politics of Performance\" (
New York and London: Rutledge, 1970);
Cultural dilemma: James Clifford
Century Ethnography, literature, art (
Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA and London, 1988);
Tony Morrison plays in the dark: White and literary imagination
London: Picador, 1992). (49)
See the editor\'s introduction to Hockx and Strauss \",8-9. (50)
In their wonderful ethnography of the Almighty Latin King and Queen Nation New York, Brotherton and Barrios demonstrate the dynamic social, cultural, spiritual and political potential to recognize some contemporary street culture is
They clearly explain the need for further collaborative research on youth culture, study the ability to appreciate subculture as a social movement, and give the right environment that is of great benefit to their communities.
See David Brotherton and Luis Barrios, King and Queen country of AlmightyLatin: street politics and the transformation of gangs in New York City (
New York: Columbia University Press, 2004). (51)
Lindner pointed out that some people who are engaged in resisting hegemony are themselves proficient in society.
Theory of Language.
\"Construction of authenticity \".
They actively manipulate the meaning of symbols to transcend social boundaries.
The Think idea reflects Umberto Eco\'s work on the \"semi-guerrilla.
Social scientists generally believe that youth culture is using the strategy of \"semi-revolutionary guerrillas\" to subvert the traditional meaning of symbols and symbols.
The 1970 Century English punk movement has been written by many cultural theorists as a major example of semi-subversion.
Sex Pistol creator Malcolm McClaren is familiar with the structure of subversive techniques used by scene artists in the 1960 s
Anouska Komlosy (
Museum of England. ac. uk)
It is currently the mastermind of the British Museum\'s Asian Ethnography.
She received a doctorate in social anthropology from the University. Andrews.
Her main research interests in southern China
Western border area.