the light fantastic - fuller, rosenthal & tipton: beginning with loie fuller in the nineteenth century, dance has pioneered the development of twentieth-century stage lighting.
Both through time and space, but also through time and space;
Both are short-lived.
Always changing, never stopping, when the American dancer Loie Fuller (1 852-1 928)
A century ago, red, blue and yellow colored lights were projected on her white silk dress.
Only technical limitations can prevent a more perfect combination. Today, computer technology that makes more and more complex lighting equipment possible can combine artistic imagination with unprecedented expression.
In 1846, the invention of the Arc Light brought the special-effect lights into the theater;
Thomas Edison\'s 1879 incandescent lamps open up experimental areas for lighting design for theaters and dances.
The form of stage lights has been around for centuries, and of course, Jean Rosenthal (1912-69)
The first professional stage lighting designer, in her book, the craft and career of modern stage lighting pioneer Jean Rosenthal, co-published with Lael Wertenbaker (1972)
, Describes the ancient Greek torches, Renaissance candles and gas lamps and other equipment (
The last three of the 19 th century
A variety of theatrical performances.
However, without an incandescent lamp, Fuller could not even begin to blend fabric, movement, and light to replicate the blooming lily, the butterfly that spreads its wings, or the rise and fall of the flame enters the final flicker of a dying ash.
The passionate Parisian called \"La Loie\" Fuller is a toast to Paris at the end of the 19 th century.
She appeared in bed. Jill, hang up.
Artists and writers, and make the risque ballroom an acceptable middle place
Class families should be frequent.
Her ballet is an early light show that explores pop culture and elegant art, as some classical ballet companies do today.
As an artist, she takes herself seriously.
She was valued by painters and sculptors for her stylized natural form.
She also inspired like W. B.
In 1893, he described her as \"artistic intoxication and industrial achievement \".
Through trial and error, Fuller found that clothing and lighting are part of the dance as well as the dance itself.
The diligent American also has a scientific tendency to host his own laboratory and is respected by the French scientific community for her contribution to light theory.
She was a friend of Curies and refused to lend her RA.
They already found out.
Ethernet danger is justified by sewing into a garment for luminous effects.
In 1896, Fuller went to the United States with her dance, and both her performance and her approach were recorded in the New York Herald.
The first explanation pointed out that Fuller applied for a patent for the dress she painted, and then manipulated it with a bamboo pole, creating a variety of organic effects.
The author also describes Fuller\'s patent plan to light the stage from above, below and around the dancers: \"an ugly dress, when the snake swings back and forth, its surface is completely different from the field of view. . .
There are ten to fifteen bright calcium lamps of different colors shining on it from under the fly, wings and stage.
Then, its thin-film fabric shines like silver or gold, or swings the purple flood under the changing lens of calcium, while the embroidered snake seems to glide on its surface
Increase the speed until the light suddenly goes out and the dancer\'s form of rotation disappears into the field of view.
Nowadays, it is not uncommon to dance a dance that requires five times the light.
Each attracted the attention of the electrician\'s assistant.
In these times, the winding dance. . .
Expensive luxury goods.
They owe their development to their current perfect stage and to Fuller.
\"Cost is not the goal.
She sometimes travels with up to 50 electricians.
Different lights for each operation.
This makes her concert very expensive.
Her fire dance was attracted by a signal from her feet that went to an electrician under the stage, who inserted ice cream of different colors in Fuller\'s reaction to the music.
Mirror and Lantern projector.
Covered with a glass sheet, it is also used to make the effect she wants.
Stubborn and persistent.
She never got away from her goal.
Explore a variety of ways to combine color and movement to create what one might call danse et lumiere, laying the stage for the use and design of dance stage lights.
When Jean Rosenthal enters or creates the field during the Great Depression, the cost is definitely an object, as it is today, and in some cases the stage lights replace the delicate landscape, became the mother of invention.
For example, for George barranchin, Rosenthal replaced the painting background of the diagirev era with the famous blue hallorama, which constituted a large number of the New York City Ballet today.
Nevertheless, when Rosenthal entered the field in 1929, women were not accepted as technicians in the burly back-office world.
\"The only real weapon I have. . .
She wrote: \"knowledge is knowledge in the struggle of acceptance.
Rosenthal knows what she\'s doing just like Fuller.
As early as the 1930 s, Rosenthal, under the guidance of being properly named Stanley mccandice, learned that dancing lamp light was possible at Yale.
Rosenthal, the first resident lighting designer at the Metropolitan Opera House, also designed lighting for many theatrical works, and I feel that if she leaves anything for future generations, that is the area of dance lighting.
\"The light is very tactile to me,\" she wrote . \".
\"It has shape and size. It has an edge.
It has quality and entity.
For me, without the miracle of creation, there is no point in the rest.
\"Unlike Fuller, Rosenthal is a co-artist working with the star choreographer of her time.
She did some iconic lighting for Balanchine and the oblique axis she created for Graham (
Known affectionately by her as \"Martha\'s hand of God \")
, Is now so widely used by dance companies of various styles that they have become the standard for lighting plays.
Each dance company has a unique aesthetic for Rosenthal, and the lighting has to be customized to suit it: \"The only common standard of ballet is the requirement of beauty and comfort.
She lit up the pattern in space for barranchin;
It is a form of decoration and narrative for the American Ballet Theater.
From the beginning, she made a huge change in the standard and inflexible lighting methods of European ballet. in Europe, the top 10 feet of the stage space was illuminated to obtain visibility and color changes.
Blue Swan Lake, pink Les Biches
Flat view of the light.
Rosenthal lights up the whole stage and gives the ballet an emotional appeal, depth and personality.
No matter what kind of dance she does, her light changes are related to music and physical impulses.
Her career started when she was 17. year-
Old, she became Graham\'s stage manager.
Forty years later, she designed lighting for Graham\'s old days in 1969, ending it all;
She died of cancer a few weeks after the premiere, aged 50. seven.
Rosenthal\'s work in lighting opera, theater and dance has received many honors, and she is a woman with both vision and practical significance.
In her own words, she forced \"an organization to create a set-
This can do all the different things the company does, whether it\'s tidily or anywhere.
This means flexibility, presentation, and color schemes to work in many emotions.
\"Today, it is Jennifer Tipton who travels the world, strengthens dance and drama production, highlights the interior landscape, and creates the exterior landscape with lighting equipment that has now been greatly improved, in addition to the benefits to modern life, the same is true of computers.
With this advanced technology, Tipton, her contemporaries and the next generation of lighting designers can explore the infinite possibilities of illuminating dance.
Tipton, who is largely a co-artist, says his main responsibility is to \"reveal what\'s there \".
\"She did this in both classical and contemporary dance.
The lighting she produced for Peter Wright\'s Gisele, performed by the Royal Ballet at the Royal Opera House in London, made the first scene look rural and the atmosphere was full of doom.
Tipton did not green the skin of the wildlife in the second act, but instead used yellow light to make them look like any mannequin in Madame Tussauds.
However, it was in her collaboration with the contemporary choreographer that Tipton succeeded in making light a formal partner for dance, which is more important than making the necessary weather 1993 Times, working with Sara Rudner and Dana Reitz the lights look like they are coming out of the dancer\'s body.
One day in Fuller, one dancer and several electricians achieved this.
At Tipton, all the changes and clues are computerized for very few electricians.
Tipton said: \"The lights on the stage have four different attributes --
Strength, color, angle, and movement.
\"Like Rosenthal, Fuller worked in the theater for a long time in order to achieve her effect, and Tipton carefully planned.
She said, \"I decided where to put what kind of lights, what color to do, and what lights to use on the dimmer.
I work mainly from drawings and I have to imagine what the stage and set look like in real space.
But the real preparation is experienced.
Looking back on a long career, she said, \"The more I look, the more I see and feel --
What happened in a space?
How to feel muscles, form, energy, background and dancers.
\"At Tipton, who once wanted to be an astrophysicist, art and technology met again in the field of lighting design:\" The rigor of lighting design is in line with my scientific background.
Once Rosenthal proudly announces, she can work anywhere with a briefcase designed specifically for blueprints, plans, architect drawings, etc.
But she had to buy an extra ticket to accommodate them.
Today, Lloyd sober, resident lighting designer of Eugene and Atlanta Ballet, lighting ballet works in Estonia, lighting opera in Aspen, and working in a small space anywhere, use a laptop with a modem.
He is part of a generation of lighting designers who are willing to look into the past and build on it as they look to the future.
With the materials at hand, a wide variety of lights and movie projections, sober worked with Tony Pimble, artistic director of the Eugene Ballet to create a compelling Alice in Wonderland, alice fell into the surreal wonderland Lewis Carroll created on the print page, and there was no effect that could not be achieved without lights.
Through cooperation with the Atlanta Ballet, sober was deeply involved in the so-called Atlanta Ballet --
Georgia Tech Dance Project
The project is related to 1996 Olympic Games so that engineers and artists can work together at the national levelof-the-
Art Stage technology.
Georgia Tech\'s textile department is also involved in creating special fabrics with both texture and memory for dancers, as Sauber said, the change of \"deformed\" clothing and computer projection.
These projects break the barriers between art and technology, and in the process there are no barriers to recognizing the combination of creative thinking.
Martha Ullman West is an Oregon Reporter for Dace magazine.