chavittunatakam: music-drama in kerala.
According to the local tradition, it can be traced back to the Apostle Thomas (1)--
But it also helps to introduce the forms of religious drama found in their home country.
These forms are partly derived from the missionary\'s view that Southern Indian Christianity is different from their own supposedly more orthodox religion and related to their plans to establish customs that will ensure their Latin Christian Brand
However, the plays have not been transplanted into pure European form, but in a region known for its Kathakalidance drama, they are integrated with the local mode of performance. (2)
The result is a new drama, performed for local church festivals off the coast of Cochin to Ramesh Varan, known as asChavittunatakam (cavittunatakam).
This is a type in part to distinguish between Latin Christians and Saints in this area.
Thomas Christians, this also fills the vacuum of their cultural life as they are completely prohibited from participating in religious activities in any way. (3)
So we can see these plays as one aspect of the conversion program established by Latin Christians. (4)
The conference on diamonds has played an important role (1599)
In the creation of the new religious drama, the themes, costumes and customs in chavitacumam and muvarasuna takamam in Kerala were adopted5)
In fact, it is an independent but closely integrated genre that can be properly included in my discussion.
The impact of the conference was also felt in Goa, where the types of drama known as Mel, Mando and Dirk higny were established. (6)
Malayalam: chavittu [cavittu]
= Step on the foot, asin dance;
The play depicts Charlemagne\'s story. (2)
The Bible-themed drama adapted the story in the old and new wills, the most famous of which is David vijaime Odam golliam (
Recently retired dubohamam)
It was because Gloria was killed, and then David was anointed king. (3)
Holy drama including holy life.
George and he fought the dragon.
Natarkham), and St.
Sebastian, including martyrdom. St.
Adapted from the native drama, it depicts moral principles, sin and redemption, and the victory of the righteous figure over the wicked. (5)
Drama adapted from Indian history and mythology.
The last category is recent developments that can only be traced back to a generation, but stories from India\'s rich myths and traditions, with plenty of room for action, for the recent Chavittuntakam drama writers
There is no doubt that the most famous drama in European history is camaranatacam.
The drama, which focuses on Emperor Charlie Mani and his men\'s heroism, was attributed to the legend of Roland, who remained popular in southern Europe until the 20 th century ,(12)
In this case, the play borrowed some of the events of Ali Osto solanddo frioso and other sources, such as La Qiansen de Roland.
The central role was the emperor\'s nephew, Roland, who outperformed others in courage and virtue.
With the rise of Kalaman, the show began (Charlemagne)to the throne (see fig. 1)
At that time, the country was in chaos due to the Islamic invasion of Europe and the Middle East.
The focus of the show is the sacred Roman emperor\'s war against the enemy under the leadership of their emperor Abdul Rahman to recapture the Holy Land of Jerusalem.
Karaman\'s army was led by his minister, Galleon. Ganalon)in battle (fig. 2)
The Christian Emperor was able to successfully resist the Turkish attack.
The inspiration for inclusion in the battle scene seems to be influenced by the conflict between Christians and Moors in the peninsula\'s heyday, which has been transplanted to Mexico and continues so far ,(13)
But at Kalaman natacam, the battle is under more severe control, so it follows the pattern and result determined in advance. [FIGURE 1-2 OMITTED]
In this type of here and elsewhere, realism in combat scenes is achieved by using metal swords and spears against bulky metal shields.
The way the battle is arranged is like this, when one opponent is in the offensive position, the other opponent occupies the defensive position, and vice versa.
The entire available performance space is used to promote impromptu performances of duels and wars, and the rhythm of the actor\'s movements is adjusted to generate tension and excitement.
However, at the end of the battle of Kalaman natacan, when the emperor\'s men celebrated their victory over the Turkish opponent led by albream bloom, they were sold out for Garon\'s word of duty, and was killed by a team of enemy soldiers.
Karalman arrived at the scene without reservation and then beheaded his unloyal minister.
The plot includes an episode of some of the man of Kalman and the beautiful daughter of the Turkish King, which seems to have something to do with European romance in the Middle Ages.
To be sure, there are some other signs in the costumes and stage performances in this Western-influenced drama.
The color is achieved by the bright feathers on the soldier\'s helmet, and their armor is clearly Roman.
These costumes are usually designed for traditional drama and are usually made of velvet, silk and kasavu (
Lace in gold or silver)
The effect is brilliant again.
The emperor entered the rich robe with a dazzling pearl.
Soldiers wearing Roman helmets and armor escorted him.
This is an impressive sight.
The missionaries have effectively used this visual quality of Chavittunatakam to stimulate the shift to true faith by depicting Pagan kings and queens with Western names using Christian official stories.
The story of Looviyal Natakam is a good example in this regard.
She is an arrogant pagan queen who uses black magic for those who want to marry this powerful woman.
Thanks to the brave and noble moral qualities of the Christian hero Prince Simon, she married him and fully embraced the Christian faith (fig. 3).
The conversion script for this sortwere is very short-
Now only perform in the clips. [
Figure 3 slightly]
As mentioned above, the drama on the subject of the Bible, the most popular of which is based on the story of David and Gelia, in which young men, who are not very strong, beat the representative of the occupying power.
Other prominent plays of this category, based on the old and new wills, are Yakubu natacam, itaki natacam, Tobias, Abraham natacam and Barabas
Early plays tend to the Old Testament, but these Bible stories are not closely watched at all in the script, which contains many fictional elements and related narratives.
Their purpose is to achieve and maintain familiarity with the Bible records.
However, the closely related Magi game, in this case, is in St. GEARS Medin 1997.
Anthony Church in Palakkad district of Kerala, antcot, can also be discussed under this heading.
As in the Magic drama at the liturgy in Europe, the three Kings put on their costumes and prepared themselves (
This is done in a special shed, involving the application of makeup)
To enter and meet with the representative of King Healy.
Riding a cow (fig. 4)
They walked through the street outside the church compound and across the audience.
They pray for guidance (fig. 5).
Due to the various manifestations of Satan, there is no malicious power in this area (Pae)
Also tempted by the audience,14)
He sat on a permanent stage in the name of a Hindu pagan monarch, where he had three kings.
The priest of Bethlehem, dressed in a full white and earband, reveals the prophecy that Jesus was born to herrodis.
Members of the audience kneel down to perform the Magi of nercha (offerings)
Then go to the church.
Inside the church, they took off their headdress in front of the manger for blessing.
The priest blessed them and the audience and sprinkled them with holy water.
Finally, there was a procession around the church with the image of a baby Jesus who was taken from the manger and placed in a canopy parade carried by the King.
By that time, the king had replaced the headdress.
After that, the audience and performers attended the Eucharist. [FIGURE 4-5 OMITTED]Saint Plays St. George and St.
Sebastian was represented on the medieval stage throughout Europe.
Although both are martyrsGeorge (Givarghis)
It is most often depicted in fighting the dragon, not after his death.
There are three plays in the Holy Spirit.
George natacam, givágis Papam and givágis patayali.
A version tells the story of the Golden Legend, nothing changed, about the princess being abused from the Dragon, the parents offered to marry, the saint refused, and he asked them to convert to the Christian faith.
This version ends with their conversion, but another extended version ends with the King\'s discontent with the faith of givais and the martyrdom of the Saints.
There are terrible tortures, but there are also Miracles, performed by Saints--
The miracle that led to the conversion of pagans to Christianity.
In another version, givais was once again introduced as a warrior serving the King and later promoted to a status of indifference (army chief).
He realized the danger of the Princess and volunteered to face the dragon he had subdued and killed.
Therefore, the princess fell in love with him, but the saint who did not like the fun of marriage left.
This Natakam is full of thrills, depicting the battle scene of St.
George is the best fighter in the country.
Another example is Alphons Chavittunatakam executed in St.
Anthony Church, vandal Sarai, enakuran district, 11 and 12 June.
The play is a narrator (Balapparttukar)
He gave advice on the operation. (15)
Alphons is a Christian priest (Mantri)
The man who served Emperor Veron at his court. fig. 6)
And act on his behalf.
The Emperor\'s daughter, Brijith (fig. 7)
Accused Alphons of being pregnant when in fact she had a secret relationship with her neighbor\'s aprince.
After discovering this, Alphons advised her to return to the moral path.
When the emperor came back from a long party, angry Brijith claimed Alphons were responsible for her pregnancy.
Based on her false evidence, he was convicted and sentenced to death.
When he was about to be hanged, he sang a long, sad prayer to the Almighty (fig. 8).
However, after the hanging, Angel appeared to revive Alphons and declared him innocent.
These events led to the actual culprit-the transformation of paganprince in neighboring countries, and the strengthening of the Christian faith in emperoraphon. [FIGURE 6-8 OMITTED]
Moral Drama although Yakkobinte tmvp is based on the theme of the Bible (fig. 9)
It can be classified as an example of a moral game because its focus is on overusing wine.
This theme is particularly relevant to the island of Gothuruthi, known for its illegal liquor production, but it also represents a recent trend to use biblical stories as the basis for this type of drama.
But many other scripts belong to this category.
They preach moral conduct, emphasizing the ultimate result of moral victory over the wicked.
In the later days, this classification contains some narratives of other popular performing genres.
The most popular is Komala Chandrika Veerakumaram, Sathyapalam, Sundari citrus, Dharmishtan. [
Figure 9 omitted
Indian history and mythology recently, after the 1960 s, the story of Indian history and Hindu purple epic was introduced into Chavittunatakamrepertoire.
This development may be affected by the popularity of another dance --
The drama baler is a continuation of sangtanatkan.
The main start, all in Malaya ramh, is Akbar, Anarkali, Chandragupthan, Bharatha Yudhathinte Nandhi, Bahavad dude, swamayyappan.
The performance of Chavittunatakam starts with the selection of the troupe, and finally the actual performance of the drama.
In the process, different aspects of training and production were also selected by the HEI or Annavi, controlled by the hewho.
The actor is trained in Kalari (gymnastics)
According to the requirements of the script.
During the training period (
Cholliyattm can sometimes last for more than a year as participants need to be educated in foot movements, singing, acting, gestures and gymnastics for an effective presentation. (16)
At first, the actors learned basic dance steps, and later, they learned more complex dance steps such as Kavitams and Kalasams. (17)
Then they were trained to use swords and guns.
As the training progresses, they perform a massage that makes the body soft and flexible to help them gain elegance in the dance. (18)
Trainees from all over the country are paying attention to the daily needs of Asans.
Each training begins by praying to God, and then they show their respect for the text by kissing.
The basic steps to learn are usually 12, but there will be some subtle changes depending on the individual\'s KPIs.
The music is set as a Talas or complex rhythm pattern for South Indian music. (19)
Most of the Sichuan fish (footsteps)
Including the use of percussion instruments to punch the rhythm of the rigorous.
Each chuvatu consists of multiple beats and movements.
As an example, onnamchuvatu (first footstep)
There will be four beats from the basic position of standingat-
The relaxation of both hands on the hips and left legs is kept a little in front.
For the first beat, the right foot is pressed hard in front, while the second beat corresponds to the stamping of the left foot in the same position.
On the third shot, the right foot was brought back, stamped in the original position, and then stamped on the left.
Accordingly, the hand leaves the body as the palm is closed and opened.
During the performance, the dance troupe-
Actors on stage will follow the samechuvatu consistently according to the number of steps that can adapt to different sports modes.
Different types of characters have different dance steps;
For example, the entire sole should not touch the ground when the villain is stepping on his foot.
The male characters are recognized by their firm footsteps, and the movements of their feet can be classified as the Tandava style of the classic dance. (20)
As mentioned earlier, Kavitams is a complex dance step.
However, these actually include a combination of the basic steps that soldiers dance according to specific music;
They are used at the beginning of the Durbar scene (entries)
The same is true when the royal family appears on stage.
They need hard practice, judging by the success of this choreographed scene.
Complex forms of dance-
ETA Callas and Callas-
In the middle and end of the song sequence, respectively.
The actor enters from the left side of the stage (
There used to be two doors, one for the entrance and the other for the exit)
And move linearly along the rhythm established by the drum.
Chavittunatakam is known for Nrityabhinaya, a quality that indicates the way the actor sings, moves according to the music with strict dance steps, and uses gestures to convey the meaning of thesong when expressing the appropriate Bhava (mentalstate)
Most of the gestures used initially seem to have nothing to do with classical traditions, but in a more careful examination, we find that they have strong similarities with some Mudra in the SouthIndian dance tradition. (21)
The action pattern is parallel, and the dance sequence is performed by forming a half circle.
The layout of the Durbar scene highlights the hierarchical structure of the society.
For example, most combinations form a triangular pattern with the king as the focus of attention;
The king always keeps his hand at least 1 feet away from his body, and as the palm opens and closes at the same time, he moves with the dance steps.
Of course, music is one of the most important aspects of the drama, and has distinctive features related to the southern Indian music tradition.
Actors sing padams or atis (
The beginning section consisting of two lines)
Chorus is behind (Chuvatikkar)
, Sing with the singer.
The choir and musical instrument players are located in the center of the stage in front of the curtain. (
If the front stage is used, as is common now, they are assigned to the right side of the stage. )The melody (sruti)
Perfect Combination with rhythm structure (tala).
According to Justin Panakkal, \"Chavittunatakam has a charming chorus music that shows the features of the multi-tone chanting Sutra. \" (22)
Instruments are used in both India and the West.
Percussion instruments such as Centa (
Drum with a stick), Mridangam (double-headed drum)And Elattalam (large gun-metal cymbals)
Other instruments used include harmony, violin, flute, violin and clarinet.
The play begins with a tune played on Centa.
In the early days, the Centa solo was played at a fixed time interval and was called askkottu.
The performances of these plays take place in the Christmas and aster seasons in rural areas, as well as in the harvest season or the patronizing festivals in coastal areas.
The stage traditionally used for performance is a platform with a width less than the length, usually about 30 by 80 feet and a height of about 4 feet on the ground.
The platform itself is made by arranging a layer of wood under a layer of tin plate, which is an acoustic shell that can amplify the sound of the dance steps.
Plays like Neapolitan and Kalaman require a bigger stage that can accommodate more than 50 actors at the same time.
There is a cross on one side of the stage and a lamp on the front.
In the early days, in order to represent the Palace or the Kingdom, two porches were built, one on either side of the stage.
Behind the stage, there is a scene that separates the performance area from the background.
The two doors are located in the curtains, as described above, for entry and exit.
There is a window in the middle of the show that allows the singer to track the character\'s movements in the background.
Stage lighting is traditionally provided by oil lamps.
On the day of the performance, they directed the members of the troupe to receive the Eucharist, and then they expressed their blessings to the elders.
In the evening, with a Chuvati in one hand, the flag of the cross is marked on the forehead of each performer. Then the make-
When the actors put on their costumes, the musicians announced the play at the beat of Centa.
Then, the play follows certain drama practices and starts with a performance marked by Viruttam mulal (
In a sense, it is similar to the Prelude in the western drama tradition.
However, all the actors were involved in the event, in fact, it was a long prayer known for its chorus, in which the Holy Spirit and the Holy Song were quoted.
The author and author of the text also expressed thanks.
This section ends with a short song that introduces the story to be performed.
Here is \"pray to the audience\" sung by Stutiyogar (
Admirers of the audience also known as Balaparttukar).
Two boys over the age of 12, dressed in soldiers, marched into the stage and knelt in front of riot and offerguudakshina (
Gift to master).
Then they began to perform basic dance steps in the direction of pace.
After bowing to the audience, they began to tell the condensed version of the dramatic story of the drama. Kattiyan (Clown)
Who can enter at any time, will invite garment manufacturers to come on stage to accept agift from their respective roles.
This is also to introduce these roles.
Shortly thereafter, a group of girls prayed to them as they entered the Virgin Mary;
This part is called toathattm, which is characterized by being called Lasya (
Elegant and exquisite).
In the early days, all female roles were played by male actors.
Start the real game now, usually the Durbar scene.
In plays such as Kalaman, the king or emperor will enter with his entourage and then a song called Varavuviruttam, in which therul
Next, the Emperor boasted about his greatness and his merits in singing, and he was designated as koruville Taru.
In these scenes, they were walking around the stage with his soldiers.
Once he is on the throne, he will call his Manteli (minister)
He then entered singingViruttam, the song in which he commented on himself and his achievements.
In response to the King\'s inquiry about his state welfare, Mantri will describe the current situation in a description called Nattu Vaarma.
As suggested above, the most exciting scene of Chavittunatakam is fighting or dueling, but the Emperor and the King did not appear in these scenes, because usually the minister is leading the respective
The fate of a soldier or the miracle that comes to man is equally important throughout the game structure.
The miracle scene is of extreme significance, because it is through these scenes that moral lessons such as the victory of justice or the danger of evil are conveyed.
In such a scene, Angels and other pious people-
Prophet and patron saint-
Make their appearance.
The characters of Katya Karan or the Joker in the play need to be mentioned further.
There is no motive for his entry or departure, and he is free to innovate in dance steps and even imitate other characters.
The audience predicted the scene by listening to what Kattiyakkaran had said to him backstage.
However, these comedy episodes also provide an opportunity for the next scene to rearrange the set.
The show ends with Mangalam, a Thanksgiving prayer to God, thanking him for successfully completing the show.
Some observers would argue that the glorious years of havittunatakam were at the beginning of the 20 th century, unlike the early practice of producing parishes for local festivals, players groups (kala samithis)
As travel players, they play a game every season.
These troupes are under the command of the well team.
Sponsored by wealthy families and local authorities, a large number of programs have been performed, mainly entertainment.
At this time, many popular local music is absorbed into this genre.
Unfortunately, the emergence of technology has had a huge impact on chavittunatakam, and as a result it has undergone significant changes in functionality, customer and presentation methods.
By the end of the last century, Chavittunatakam had been seen as a representative of early Latin Christianity in Kerala.
Of course, their designation as part of Kerala\'s \"heritage\" is not a healthy development.
Nevertheless, the particular church in which the old theater tradition was restored maintains its true form.
As an art form, authentic Chavittunatakam struggles to survive in an unfavorable environment, so closer scholar surveys are needed at this time.
It is hoped that serious attention to chavitonatamam will help to power the restoration of its lost grandeur.
Note: This article contains the material from my previous work on this subject: \"music drama of Chavittunatakam: KeralaChristians\" and \"chavit and music Review 19 (Spring 1997): 93-104, and 20(Fall 1997): 27-33;
Publications from the medieval Institute have given permission to use this material.
I thank NaraynanVaradarajan for his correction of my writing, and Clifford Davidson andSudhakar Redi for his encouragement and assistance and for her as well. G. C. (India)
Get financial support through the USR. F. scheme. (1)
On March, Gabriel, the ancient and related historical events of Syrian Christians (1705)Like J. C.
Visscher, letter from malabar (
Madras: Ganz, 1862), 105;
Susan Viswanathan, a Christian in Kerala (
University of Oxford Press, Madras, 1993), 170-73;
For a brief survey, please see Joly Puthussery, \"Chavittunatakam: musical drama of Christians in Kerala\", early drama, art and music Review 19 (Spring 1997): 93-94. (2)
Other theories of origin attribute Chavittunatakam to national traditions or Tamil drama.
The first theory in these theories relies on Joyal de cibispo de Goa, Dora arexo of Antonio de Gova ·Coimbra, 1606)
128. regarding the tradition of performing local Christians in Kerala;
See also Sabina Lafite, Cavittunatakam (
Goddam: SPCS, 1964), passim; C. J.
Thomas of Yavanika (
Goddam: SPCS, 1964), 22; and T. M.
Chummar, Padya Sahitya Carithram (
Goddam: National Bureau of Statistics, 1960), 135-38.
Origin of Tamil folk theater (Terukkuttu)
Christian folklore Chummar Choondal believes that (
Kerala folk College, 1988), 77. (3)
Adhere to the doctrine of the \"extra Church, New Lhasa rose (
No salvation outside the church)
It was upheld by the Portuguese, and they were filled with the spirit of the country --
Reform in EuropeSee A. M.
The history of Christianity in India
Bangalore: Indian theological publication, 1984)
Decree of the 493 session and the third and fourth sessions (
On the baptism and transformation of etiquette
, As well as the acts and decrees of the IX, Diamper conference at the Diamper conference in scariazharia (
Etamattam: IICS 1994), 90-121,202-14.
These accusations are directed at many social customs common to other countries.
Christian communities, they show the radical interpretation of the Catholic Church by the Portuguese and their contempt for other religions and non-religions
For example, in the 16 th and 17 th centuries, images and paintings were first introduced into the church of Kerala;
Only the cross was present at that time (
Christian History of India, 195).
Gothic architecture and other Western styles are then introduced.
Keralachurches\'s Latin organ music is an innovation introduced by missionaries in the Portuguese period;
In the early days, the music of Syria, including chanting preaching.
For the Padroado jurisdiction granted by Poppe Alexander VI to the Portuguese, see George mark Morais, the Christian history of India from the early days to St. Morais
Volume 2 Francis Xavier(
Mumbai: Manaktalas, 1964)
1: 124 quote Ji Koodapuzha, ed.
Thirusabha Charithram (
Goddam: mold, 1974), 846. (5)
Twelve Days of Christmas;
See Choondal, Christian folklore, 84;
For the magic drama of the European liturgy, see the Christian Theatre KarlYoung, Volume 2. (
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1933), 2:29-101. (6)
Feast of the Three Kings at Chandor, performed at 5 January 2003, and recorded at the konkanani Development Center of Goa University; Francis P.
Christianity in the form of Indian Dance
New Delhi: Satguru Press, 1990), 106. (7)
Traditional Indian classical dance Mohan Khokar (
Delhi: Clarion, 1979), 92. (8)
Chummar Choondal, drama and folk tradition of Christians in Kerala, Sangeet Natak Magazine 59 (1981): 36. (9)
To identify the language as Malaysians, seeV. S.
Andrews, \"sagiam,\" Number 2, parishath23 (1933), 316-19. (10)
See my \"idioms and ideology: a traditional study of Christian performance in Kerala\"D. diss.
University of Hyderabad (1997)
This is based on my field survey. (11)
Parimarute Maranam is a recent script in Malaya about the death of 12 heroic emperors Karalman. (12)
The epic Charlemagne cycle was recited in detail by a raccontiero on the streets of Palermo, Sicily, until the television appeared; see Peter G.
Evarts, \"the technique of media singers revealed in container, Sicily\", Studies medieval culture 6-7 (1976): 117-26. (13)
See Max Harris, the Aztec, the Moors, and Christians: The Festival of re-conquest in Mexico and Spain (
Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000), 55-63. (14)
Puittunatakam: Appendix, \"Fig. 4-5. (15)Ibid. , fig. 1. (16)
Pangjcara Lafite is in his novel swagadusen.
Goddam: National Bureau of Statistics, 1971)
Describes a two-year intensive training session of a group of actorsfor in naboli Liyan chavituttakamam. (17)
Kavitams is a pure dance work with a specific tune as the background, including complex steps that combine two basic steps;
Kalasamsutilize includes powerful dance steps for small jumps.
See Raphy, Cavittunatakam, 18789. (18)
Uzhicil, the body\'s oil massage, is an important part of Ayurvedic treatment in Kerala, and is also critical to Kathakalidancer and Dr. Kalarippayattu(19)See Harold S.
Tara in kanatich music in The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed.
20 volt Stanley Sadie(
London: Macmillan, 1980), 9:119-22. (20)
The two dance styles in the South Indian dance tradition are tandawa, related to Shiva in Hindu mythology, and represent men through powerful steps;
And Lusha, which is soft, delicate and soft; see P. S. R.
APA Rao, a monograph on APA Rao
Hyderabad: nayamara, 1967), 17. (21)
For example, such gestures, such as the two index fingers of the right hand pointing to the curved left hand, indicate the imperial status of the Emperor.
Combine clothing, props and gestures. (22)
Justin Panakkal is the music director of the religious seminary.